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Effect of Different Types of Physical Activity on Activities of Daily Living in Older Adults: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Christine E. Roberts, Louise H. Phillips, Clare L. Cooper, Stuart Gray, and Julia L. Allan

, Population Division, 2013 ). Advanced age involves structural and functional deterioration of most physiological systems ( Chodzko-Zajko et al., 2009 ) which may negatively impact an individual's ability to carry out activities of daily living (ADL) such as grooming, feeding, mobilizing, and continence

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Sedentary Time in US Older Adults Associated With Disability in Activities of Daily Living Independent of Physical Activity

Dorothy D. Dunlop, Jing Song, Emily K. Arntson, Pamela A. Semanik, Jungwha Lee, Rowland W. Chang, and Jennifer M. Hootman


The harmful relationship of sedentary behavior to health may reflect an exchange of sedentary activity for moderateto- vigorous physical activity (MVPA), or sedentary behavior may be a separate risk factor. We examined whether time spent in sedentary behavior is related to disability in activities of daily living (ADL), independent of time spent in MVPA in older adults.


The nationally representative 2003−2006 National Health and Nutrition Examinations Surveys (NHANES) included 2286 adults aged 60 years and older in whom physical activity was assessed by accelerometer. The association between ADL task disability and the daily percentage of sedentary time was evaluated by multiple logistic regression.


These adults on average spent 9h/d being sedentary during waking hours and 4.5% reported ADL disability. The odds of ADL disability were 46% greater (odds ratio, 1.46; 95% confidence interval, 1.07−1.98) for each daily hour spent in sedentary behavior, adjusted for MVPA and socioeconomic and health factors.


These US national data show a strong relationship between greater time spent in sedentary behavior and the presence of ADL disability, independent of time spent in moderate or vigorous activity. These findings support programs encouraging older adults to decrease sedentary behavior regardless of their engagement in moderate or vigorous activity.

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Task-Oriented Exercise to Reduce Activities of Daily Living Disability in Vulnerable Older Adults: A Feasibility Study of the 3-Step Workout for Life

Chiung-ju Liu, Leah Y. Jones, Alyssa R. M. Formyduval, and Daniel O. Clark

The purpose of this feasibility study was to evaluate the 3-Step Workout for Life program, a 10-week exercise program that included moderate-intensity muscle strength training followed by task-oriented training. Fourteen participants completed the program (mean age = 73 years; SD = 6.83). The Box and Block test (Z = −2.24, p = .03) and the 30-s chair stand test (Z = −2.21, p = .03) indicate improved physical functioning of the upper and lower extremities. More importantly, results of the function component from the Late-Life Function and Disability Instrument (Z = −2.04, p = .04) and motor skills scale from the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills (Z = −2.97, p = .003) indicate subjective and objective improvements on performing activities of daily living. Supplementing moderate-intensity muscle strength exercise with taskoriented training components is feasible. Preliminary data support the effectiveness of 3-Step Workout for Life in reducing late-life disability.

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Indicators of Improvement in Performing Activities of Daily Living Among Older Patients Undergoing Rehabilitation Following Hip Fractures

Koki Nishiomasu, Takahiro Ogawa, and Keisuke Sato

for older patients. Recent studies show that cognitive impairment could affect the activities of daily living (ADL) in patients who experienced hip fractures, whereas a negative association between cognitive impairment and functional outcomes was reported in patients aged ≥65 years after sustaining

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Examining the Effect of Time-From-Treatment on Activities of Daily Living Kinematics in Breast Cancer Survivors

Rebecca A.M. Wills, Jacquelyn M. Maciukiewicz, Marina Mourtzakis, and Clark R. Dickerson

may challenge their ability to perform activities of daily living (ADL), and reduce occupational activities as well. Following breast cancer treatment, many experience movement deficits in their affected arm and may reduce their range of motion (ROM) to avoid pain and to compensate for these deficits

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Reduced Cross-Sectional Area of the Gluteus Medius Muscle is Associated With Decreased Activities of Daily Living in Older Adult Patients With Hip Fractures

Ryo Shiraishi, Keisuke Sato, Nobumasa Chijiiwa, Sadao Yoshida, and Takahiro Ogawa

 al., 2008 ; Oba et al., 2021 ). Furthermore, it has been reported that reduced motor function following hip fracture is associated with decreased activities of daily living (ADL) ( Takeda et al., 2006 ). Decreased ADL after hip fractures is associated with decreased quality of life, increased nursing care

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Self-Efficacy for Quad Rugby Skills and Activities of Daily Living

Yuhanis Adnan, Alex McKenzie, and Motohide Miyahara

The purpose was to compare quad rugby male athletes with a lesion-matched group of persons without quad rugby experience on self-efficacy expectations for performing quad rugby skills (SEQRS) and activities of daily living (SEADL) skills. Each group contained 15 participants. The experimental design was ex post facto. Mann-Whitney U Tests revealed that quad rugby participants scored significantly higher on all 11 items comprising the SEQRS and 4 of the 28 items comprising SEADL. Correlations between SEQRS and SEADL were .75 and .92 for the QR participants and nonparticipants, respectively.

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A Novel Device to Preserve Physical Activities of Daily Living in Healthy Older People

Wolfram Haslinger, Lisa Müller, Nejc Sarabon, Christian Raschner, Helmut Kern, and Stefan Löfler


To determine the effectiveness of exercise in improving sensorimotor function and functional performance, crucial parts of activities of daily living in healthy older adults.






39 subjects (M = 71.8 years, range: 61–89 years).


Task-oriented visual feedback balance training.

Primary outcome measure:

Timed Up & Go (TUG).

Secondary outcome measures:

Chair stand test (CST), self-paced walk test, maximum isometric torque, quiet stand posturography, and dynamic balance (DB).


Postintervention comparison of the treatment group (TG) and control group (CG) showed better TUG (p < .01), CST (p < .001), and DB (p < .025) for the TG. Pre–post intervention comparison of the TG showed better clinically-relevant outcomes in TUG (p < .001), CST (p < .001), and DB (p < .001).


Active driven visual feedback balance training is effective in improving functional performance and dynamic balance in older adults.

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Self-Reported Mobility and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living: Test–Retest Reliability and Criterion Validity

Ching-Yi Wang, Ming-Hsia Hu, Hui-Ya Chen, and Ren-Hau Li

To determine the test–retest reliability and criterion validity of self-reported function in mobility and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) in older adults, a convenience sample of 70 subjects (72.9 ± 6.6 yr, 34 male) was split into able and disabled groups based on baseline assessment and into consistently able, consistently disabled, and inconsistent based on repeat assessments over 2 weeks. The criterion validities of the self-reported measures of mobility domain and IADL-physical subdomain were assessed with concurrent baseline measures of 4 mobility performances, and that of the self-reported measure of IADL-cognitive subdomain, with the Mini-Mental State Examination. Test–retest reliability was moderate for the mobility, IADL-physical, and IADL-cognitive subdomains (κ = .51–.66). Those who reported being able at baseline also performed better on physical- and cognitive-performance tests. Those with variable performance between test occasions tended to report inconsistently on repeat measures in mobility and IADL-cognitive, suggesting fluctuations in physical and cognitive performance.

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The Assessment of Functional Age Using “Activities of Daily Living” Performance Tests: A Study of Korean Women

Hee Sik Kim and Kiyoji Tanaka

The purpose of this study was to assess the extent to which a battery of 24 activities of daily living (ADL) performance tasks could be used to determine functional age in a sample of older women. The subjects were 253 older adult Korean women, aged 60 to 91 years. All subjects completed a comprehensive battery of 24 performance tests related to common activities of daily living. Correlations between the measures were computed, and principal component analysis was applied to the 24 × 24 correlation matrix. A principal component score was computed for each subject and was found to decrease significantly with advancing age. Multiple regression analysis revealed that out of the initial 24 variables, 5 variables accounted for 81% of the variability. An equation was developed to determine ADL age; the equation was considered useful for the assessment of daily living activities of older adult Korean women.