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Nicolas Farina, Laura J. Hughes, Amber Watts and Ruth G. Lowry

Measuring physical activity is complicated, with trade-offs between the different types of available measures in terms of accuracy, acceptability, and feasibility ( Prince et al., 2008 ; Sylvia, Bernstein, Hubbard, Keating, & Anderson, 2014 ). Physical activity questionnaires have a distinct place

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Aurora de Fátima G.C. Mafra Cabral, Marcelo Medeiros Pinheiro, Charlles H.M. Castro, Marco Túlio De Mello, Sérgio Tufik and Vera Lúcia Szejnfeld

according to sex, age, cognition, and socioeconomic and cultural background ( Lee, 2000 ). The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) and the Baecke habitual physical activity questionnaire are the most commonly used physical activity questionnaires in clinical research ( van Poppel, Chinapaw

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Miguel A. de la Cámara, Sara Higueras-Fresnillo, Verónica Cabanas-Sánchez, Kabir P. Sadarangani, David Martinez-Gomez and Óscar L. Veiga

the IDEEA monitor. GPAQ indicates Global Physical Activity Questionnaire; IDEEA, Intelligent Device for Energy Expenditure and Activity. *Differences ( P  < .05) between GPAQ and IDEEA. ** P  < .05. The mean bias was between −1 and −2 hours per day when compared with the GPAQ-SB, and the IDEEA

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Inácio Crochemore M. da Silva, Grégore I. Mielke, Andréa D. Bertoldi, Paulo Sergio Dourado Arrais, Vera Lucia Luiza, Sotero Serrate Mengue and Pedro C. Hallal

Activity Questionnaire or Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ). 4 – 6 World Health Organization (WHO) has adopted and recommended the use of the GPAQ, 7 , 8 which is being used in the STEPwise approach ( http://www.who.int/chp/steps ) for physical activity surveillance. 9 Although some local

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Levi Frehlich, Christine Friedenreich, Alberto Nettel-Aguirre, Jasper Schipperijn and Gavin R. McCormack

( Doma, Speyer, Leicht, & Cordier, 2017 ). Recently, we adapted and tested the measurement properties of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) to capture neighborhood-based physical activity undertaken in the last week, finding that the self-administered tool had moderate to excellent

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Kent C. Kowalski, Peter R.E. Crocker and Nanette P. Kowalski

This study assessed the convergent validity of the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents (PAQ-A). The PAQ-A is a modified version for high school students of the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQC). The PAQ-A is a 7-day recall used to assess general physical activity levels during the school year. Eighty-five high school students in Grades 8 through 12 filled out the PAQ-A and other physical activity measures. The PAQ-A was moderately related to an activity rating (r = .73), the Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire (r = .57), a Caltrac motion sensor (r = .33), and the 7-day physical activity recall interview (r = .59). The results of this study support the convergent validity of the PAQ-A as a measure of general physical activity level for high school students.

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Pedro Curi Hallal, Cesar Gomes Victora, Jonathan Charles Kingdon Wells, Rosângela Costa Lima and Neiva Jorge Valle

Background:

Our study aims to compare the short and full-length International Physical Activity Questionnaires (IPAQ).

Methods:

Both versions were completed by 186 subjects >14 y living in southern Brazil. Half answered the short and then the long version; the remaining subjects followed the reverse order. Physical inactivity (PI) was defined as <150 min/wk spent in moderate or vigorous activities. The Bland and Altman method and the kappa statistic were used to assess agreement between the continuous and categorical outcomes, respectively.

Results:

The prevalence of PI was 50% higher with the short IPAQ (42% vs. 28%). The kappa value was 53.7%. Although the correlation coefficient was moderately high (r=0.61), agreement between methods was low.

Conclusions:

Both analyses used show that the short and full-length IPAQ versions have poor agreement. Utilization of inappropriate statistics would lead to misinterpretation. Researchers should exercise care before comparing studies using different IPAQ versions.

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Dori E. Rosenberg, Fiona C. Bull, Alison L. Marshall, James F. Sallis and Adrian E. Bauman

Purpose:

This study explored definitions of sedentary behavior and examined the relationship between sitting time and physical inactivity using the sitting items from the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ).

Methods:

Participants (N = 289, 44.6% male, mean age = 35.93) from 3 countries completed self-administered long- and short-IPAQ sitting items. Participants wore accelero-meters; were classified as inactive (no leisure-time activity), insufficiently active, or meeting recommendations; and were classified into tertiles of sitting behavior.

Results:

Reliability of sitting time was acceptable for men and women. Correlations between total sitting and accelerometer counts/min <100 were significant for both long (r = .33) and short (r = .34) forms. There was no agreement between tertiles of sitting and the inactivity category (kappa = .02, P = .68).

Conclusion:

Sedentary behavior should be explicitly measured in population surveillance and research instead of being defined by lack of physical activity.

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Kent C. Kowalski, Peter R.E. Crocker and Robert A. Faulkner

Two studies assessed the validity of the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C), a 7-day recall that assesses general moderate to vigorous physical activity levels during the school year. The first study, involving 89 elementary school students in Grades 4–8, investigated convergent, divergent, and construct validity. The PAQ-C was moderately related to an activity rating (r = .63), week summation of 24-hr moderate to vigorous activity recalls (r = .53), a teacher’s rating of physical activity (r = .45), and perceptions of athletic competence (r = .48). As expected, the PAQ-C was not related to perceptions of behavioral conduct. The second study, involving 97 elementary school students, investigated convergent and construct validity. The PAQ-C was moderately related to an activity rating (r = .57), the Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire (r = .41), a Caltrac motion sensor (r = .39), a 7-day physical activity recall interview (r = .46) and a step test of fitness (r = .28). The PAQ-C validity coefficients were as high as or greater than the 7-day recall interview. These two studies support the validity of the PAQ-C as a method of assessing older children’s general physical activity levels.

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Kathleen Y. Wolin, Daniel P. Heil, Sandy Askew, Charles E. Matthews and Gary G. Bennett

Background:

The International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Form (IPAQ-S) has been evaluated against accelerometer-determined physical activity measures in small homogenous samples of adults in the United States. There is limited information about the validity of the IPAQ-S in diverse US samples.

Methods:

142 Blacks residing in low-income housing completed the IPAQ-S and wore an accelerometer for up to 6 days. Both 1- and 10-minute accelerometer bouts were used to define time spent in light, moderate, and vigorous physical activity.

Results:

We found fair agreement between the IPAQ-S and accelerometer-determined physical activity (r = .26 for 10-minute bout, r = .36 for 1-minute bout). Correlations were higher among men than women. When we classified participants as meeting physical activity recommendations, agreement was low (kappa = .04, 10-minute; kappa = .21, 1-minute); only 25% of individuals were classified the same by both instruments (10-minute bout).

Conclusions:

In one of the few studies to assess the validity of a self-reported physical activity measure among Blacks, we found moderate correlations with accelerometer data, though correlations were weaker for women. Correlations were smaller when IPAQ-S data were compared using a 10- versus a 1-minute bout definition. There was limited evidence for agreement between the instruments when classifying participants as meeting physical activity recommendations.