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Nicholas W. Baumgartner, Anne M. Walk, Caitlyn G. Edwards, Alicia R. Covello, Morgan R. Chojnacki, Ginger E. Reeser, Andrew M. Taylor, Hannah D. Holscher and Naiman A. Khan

There is a growing public health burden of physical inactivity across the globe. 1 Daily life is characterized by decreased opportunities for physical activity along with the abundant supply of energy-dense and nutritionally poor foods. This is particularly evident in western societies, such as

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Suzie Mudge, Denise Taylor, Oliver Chang and Rosita Wong

Background:

Activity Monitors give an objective measure of usual walking performance. This study aimed to examine the test-retest reliability of the StepWatch Activity Monitor outputs (mean steps/day; peak activity index; sustained activity indices of 1, 5, 20, 30, 60 minutes; steps at high, medium, and low stepping rates).

Methods:

Thirty healthy adults age 18 to 49 years wore the StepWatch for 2 3-day periods at least 1 week apart.

Results:

The intraclass correlation coefficients of the StepWatch outputs ranged from 0.44 to 0.91 over 3 days. The coefficient of variation ranged from 3.0% to 51.3% over the monitoring periods, with higher variation shown for shorter monitoring periods. The most reliable 5 outputs had 95% limits of agreement between 3-day periods that were less than 40%. These were mean steps/day (±39.1%), highest step rate in 1 (±17.3%) and 5 (±37.4%) minutes, peak activity index (±25.6%), and percentage of inactive time (±9.52%).

Conclusions:

Mean steps/day, highest step rate in 1 and 5 minutes, peak activity index, and percentage of inactive time have good test-retest reliability over a 3-day monitoring period, with lower reliability shown by the other StepWatch outputs. Monitoring over 1 or 2 days is less reliable.

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Jim Dollman and Kate Ridley

Background:

Evidence suggests that a substantial proportion of children meet guidelines for sufficient physical activity, but also exceed TV guidelines. Health-related consequences of this combination are unknown.

Methods:

843 children, (age 10-11 y), were surveyed for health-related fitness [endurance performance (20 m MST), skinfolds, waist girth], daily TV and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Children were grouped using daily TV (≤ 120 min) and MVPA (≥ 60 min) guidelines: hiTV-hiMVPA/“technoactives”’; hiTV-loMVPA/“screenies”; and loTV-hiMVPA/“sporties.” Groups were compared on health-related fitness measures.

Results:

There was a trend (P = 0.07) towards higher girls’ skinfolds among “screenies” than “sporties.” Boys’ waist girths were higher among “technoactives” than “sporties” (P = 0.008). Male “technoactives” outperformed “screenies” on the 20 m MST (P = 0.03). Female “sporties” (P = 0.004) and “technoactives” (P = 0.0002) outperformed “screenies” on the 20 m MST.

Conclusions:

“Technoactives” were no different than “sporties” on endurance fitness but exhibited less favorable fat distribution among boys. Overall, “screenies” exhibited the least favorable health profiles.

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Lena Fleig, Megan M. McAllister, Penny Brasher, Wendy L. Cook, Pierre Guy, Joseph H. Puyat, Karim M. Khan, Heather A. McKay and Maureen C. Ashe

Objectives:

To characterize patterns of sedentary behavior and physical activity in older adults recovering from hip fracture and to determine characteristics associated with activity.

Methods:

Community-dwelling, Canadian adults (65 years+) who sustained hip fracture wore an accelerometer at the waist for seven days and provided information on quality of life, falls self-efficacy, cognitive functioning, and mobility.

Results:

There were 53 older adults (mean age [SD] 79.5 [7.8] years) enrolled in the study; 49 had valid data and demonstrated high levels of sedentary time (median [p10, p90] 591.3 [482.2, 707.2] minutes/day), low levels of light activity (186.6 [72.6, 293.7]), and MVPA (2 [0.1, 27.6]), as well as few daily steps (2467.7 [617.1, 6820.4]). Regression analyses showed that age, gender, gait speed, and time since fracture were associated with outcomes.

Conclusions:

Older adults have long periods of sedentary time with minimal activity. Results are a call to action to encourage people to sit less and move more.

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Tim Takken, Nynke de Jong and on behalf of the Dutch Physical Activity Report Card Study Group

Introduction National surveillance data in the Netherlands show that the percentage of children and youth, who meet the Dutch physical activity guidelines has decreased significantly between 2006 and 2014. 1 Data from the 2016 Dutch Physical Activity Report Card showed that only a minority of

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Bert Hayslip Jr., Daniel Weigand, Robert Weinberg, Peggy Richardson and Allen Jackson

The present investigation reports on the reliability and validity of several scales derived from the Health Belief Model (HBM). Both their internal consistency and their ability to predict self-reported sport and physical activity participation among younger and older adults are examined. As an exploratory endeavor, new, internally consistent scales were developed to assess several HBM factors. Results of age-group comparisons as well as comparisons across levels of diversity in several types of self-reported physical activity suggest that the newly developed measures differentiate between individuals on the basis of age and degrees of diversity in activity.

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Marcella Burghard, Karlijn Knitel, Iris van Oost, Mark S. Tremblay, Tim Takken and the Dutch Physical Activity Report Card Study Group

Background:

The Active Healthy Kids the Netherlands (AHKN) Report Card consolidates and translates research and assesses how the Netherlands is being responsible in providing physical activity (PA) opportunities for children and youth (<18 years). The primary aim of this article is to summarize the results of the 2016 AHKN Report Card.

Methods:

Nine indicators were graded using the Active Healthy Kids Global Alliance report card development process, which includes a synthesis of the best available research, surveillance, policy and practice findings, and expert consensus.

Results:

Grades assigned were: Overall Physical Activity Levels, D; Organized Sport Participation, B; Active Play, B; Active Transportation, A; Sedentary Behaviors, C; Family and Peers, B; School, C; Community and the Built Environment, A; Government Strategies and Investments, INC.

Conclusions:

Sedentary behavior and overall PA levels are not meeting current guidelines. However, the Dutch youth behaviors in sports, active transportation, and active play are satisfactory. Several modifiable factors of influence might be enhanced to improve these indicators or at least prevent regression. Although Dutch children accumulate a lot of daily PA through cycling, it is not enough to meet the current national PA guidelines of 60 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous PA per day.

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Marcie Harris-Hayes, Shirley A. Sahrmann and Linda R. Van Dillen

Context:

Hip function has been proposed to be related to low back pain (LBP) because of the anatomical proximity of the hip and lumbopelvic region. To date, findings have been inconclusive, possibly because the samples studied were heterogeneous. Subgrouping samples based on characteristics such as activity demand, LBP classification, and sex might clarify research findings.

Objective:

To describe and summarize studies that examine 3 factors proposed to be important to the study of the hip–LBP relationship.

Design:

Review of cross-sectional studies.

Setting:

Academic healthcare center and research laboratory.

Subjects:

3 groups: athletes with a history of LBP who regularly participate in rotation-related sports, athletes without a history of LBP who are active but do not regularly participate in rotation-related sports, and athletes without a history of LBP who participate in rotation-related sports.

Main Outcome:

Hip range of motion and hip–lumbopelvic region coordination.

Measures:

Hip range of motion was measured with an inclinometer. Coordination was examined based on kinematics obtained with a 3-dimensional motion-capture system.

Result:

Differences among groups were found based on activity demand, LBP classification, and sex.

Conclusion:

When assessing athletes with and without LBP, characteristics such as activity demand, LBP classification, and sex should be considered.

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Keven A. Prusak, Darren C. Treasure, Paul W. Darst and Robert P. Pangrazi

This study examined the motivational responses of adolescent girls in the physical education setting to having choices of walking activities. Seventh and 8th grade girls (N = 1,110) in 42 intact physical education classes participated in this study. Classes were randomly assigned to choice (n = 21) and no-choice (n = 21) groups. Participants’ situational and contextual motivation was assessed using the Situational Motivation Scale (SIMS) and the Sport Motivation Scale for PE (SMSPE). The SIMS was administered every 3 days during the intervention. The SMSPE was administered as the pre- and posttest. Significant differences indicated that the choice group (a) was more intrinsically motivated, (b) had higher identified regulation, (c) experienced less external control, and (d) was less amotivated. Moderate to large effect sizes were noted. A significant difference in amotivation at the contextual level was noted. Results suggest that adolescent female PE students may be more motivated if given choices. The notion of emerging adult attitudes is presented and explored.

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Brian E. Saelens, Lawrence D. Frank, Christopher Auffrey, Robert C. Whitaker, Hillary L. Burdette and Natalie Colabianchi

Background:

Reliable and comprehensive measurement of physical activity settings is needed to examine environment-behavior relations.

Methods:

Surveyed park professionals (n = 34) and users (n = 29) identified park and playground elements (e.g., trail) and qualities (e.g., condition). Responses guided observational instrument development for environmental assessment of public recreation spaces (EAPRS). Item inter-rater reliability was evaluated following observations in 92 parks and playgrounds. Instrument revision and further reliability testing were conducted with observations in 21 parks and 20 playgrounds.

Results:

EAPRS evaluates trail/path, specific use (e.g., picnic), water-related, amenity (e.g., benches), and play elements, and their qualities. Most EAPRS items had good-excellent reliability, particularly presence/number items. Reliability improved from the original (n = 1088 items) to revised (n = 646 items) instrument for condition, coverage/shade, and openness/visibility items. Reliability was especially good for play features, but cleanliness items were generally unreliable.

Conclusions:

The EAPRS instrument provides comprehensive assessment of parks’ and playgrounds’ physical environment, with generally high reliability.