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Ariane L. Rung, Andrew J. Mowen, Stephanie T. Broyles, and Jeanette Gustat

Background:

Neighborhood parks play an important role in promoting physical activity. We examined the effect of activity area, condition, and presence of supporting features on number of park users and park-based physical activity levels.

Methods:

37 parks and 154 activity areas within parks were assessed during summer 2008 for their features and park-based physical activity. Outcomes included any park use, number of park users, mean and total energy expenditure. Independent variables included type and condition of activity area, supporting features, size of activity area, gender, and day of week. Multilevel models controlled for clustering of observations at activity area and park levels.

Results:

Type of activity area was associated with number of park users, mean and total energy expenditure, with basketball courts having the highest number of users and total energy expenditure, and playgrounds having the highest mean energy expenditure. Condition of activity areas was positively associated with number of basketball court users and inversely associated with number of green space users and total green space energy expenditure. Various supporting features were both positively and negatively associated with each outcome.

Conclusions:

This study provides evidence regarding characteristics of parks that can contribute to achieving physical activity goals within recreational spaces.

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Kent A. Lorenz, Hans van der Mars, Jaimie McMullen, Jason Norris, and Julie Jahn

to the PETE program internship was present at the expanded PA programming sessions at each school to oversee the interns’ implementation of the expanded PA programs. They checked for (a) access to PA areas; (b) provision of at least five different activity areas, with corresponding equipment; (c

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Hans van der Mars, Paul Darst, Bill Vogler, and Barbara Cusimano

Supervision patterns of elementary physical educators were analyzed in relation to work involvement patterns of students in each teacher’s class. The supervision patterns analyzed included teacher location, rate of movement, and provision of verbal feedback. Work involvement by students was categorized into on-task, off-task, total motor engagement, and successful motor engagement (ALT-PE). Results showed that teachers spent more time along the periphery of the activity area, and that they were positioned more along the sides. They were active movers, averaging six sector changes per minute, and active in providing verbal feedback (3.2/min). Teacher feedback patterns did not correlate with teacher location/movement patterns. Teachers’ location (periphery) and movement correlated significantly with students’ total motor engagement. Teacher movement also correlated significantly with ALT-PE. Positive behavior feedback correlated with students’ on-task behaviors. Findings indicate that active supervision is important in maintaining students’ involvement with learning tasks in physical education.

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M. Renée Umstattd, Stephanie L. Baller, Erin Hennessy, David Hartley, Christina D. Economos, Raymond R. Hyatt, Anush Yousefian, and Jeffrey S. Hallam

Background:

Evidence supports the role of physical and social environments in active living, including perception of environment. However, measurement of perceived environments in rural settings is lacking. This study describes the development of the Rural Active Living Perceived Environmental Support Scale (RALPESS).

Methods:

Premised on social ecological and cognitive perspectives, 85 initial items were generated through a literature review and a mixed-methods investigation of “activity-friendly” environments. Items were organized by resource areas—town center, indoor and outdoor physical activity areas, schools, churches, and areas around the home/neighborhood—and submitted for expert panel review. In 2009, a revised questionnaire was disseminated to adolescents, parents, public school staff, and older adults in 2 rural southeastern United States counties. Principal component analysis with varimax rotation was used to explore factor structure (n = 542).

Results:

The final analysis yielded 33 items with 7 factors: 1) church facilities, 2) town center connectivity, 3) indoor areas, 4) around the home/neighborhood, 5) town center physical activity resources, 6) school grounds, and 7) outdoor areas.

Conclusions:

The RALPESS is a valid, internally consistent, and practically useful instrument to measure perceptions of rural environments in the context of physical activity across the lifespan. Confirmatory factor analysis is recommended to validate factor structure.

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Andrew T. Kaczynski, Sonja A. Wilhelm Stanis, Tanis J. Hastmann, and Gina M. Besenyi

Background:

Parks are important settings for physical activity (PA), but few studies have documented the actual behaviors of park users. The purpose of this study was to examine the individual and joint effects of various park user demographic characteristics on observed PA intensity levels.

Methods:

Four parks were observed using the System for Observing Play and Recreation in Communities. Observers recorded the age group, gender, race, and intensity level of all park users in 83 activity areas over two weekends at each park. Logistic regression examined whether male/White, female/White, and male/non-White users were more likely than female/non-White users to be observed engaging in moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) rather than sedentary activity across 4 age groups.

Results:

In total, 8612 users were observed during the study. In the child age group, male/White users were significantly more likely to be observed in MVPA than female/non-White users. For teens, female/White and male/White users were less likely to engage in MVPA. For both adults and seniors, female/White and male/White users were more likely to be observed in MVPA.

Conclusion:

Observations revealed significant differences in intensity levels across gender, age, and race groups. Future interventions should emphasize park design that promotes increased MVPA among diverse groups.

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Kent A. Lorenz, Hans van der Mars, Pamela Hodges Kulinna, Barbara E. Ainsworth, and Melbourne F. Hovell

MVPA during the 3 lunch periods and (2) the percentage of total students present within an activity area engaged in MVPA. Independent variables consisted of changes in contextual variables (eg, facility access or equipment availability) during lunch periods, as well as the presence of prompting (eg

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Shannon C. Mulhearn, Hyeonho Yu, Hans van der Mars, Janelle M. Griffo, and Pamela H. Kulinna

), and whether loose equipment (e.g., balls, racquets, bats) was present. Data were also collected on whether an activity area was sufficiently lit for use and whether either there were people present or the space was empty. Finally, at the start of each sweep, data collectors used the same mobile phone

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Michael J. Diacin

rubric are available upon request. Interview Guide Content a. Description of facility and staff – Description of the facility (e.g., square footage, activity areas, ancillary areas [concessions, locker rooms]); description of customer base (e.g., ages, skill levels) programs offered; and quantity of

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Diana Marina Camargo, Paula Camila Ramírez, Vanesa Quiroga, Paola Ríos, Rogério César Férmino, and Olga L. Sarmiento

adults, as well as outdoor gyms for older adults (Table  3 ). Table 3 Characteristics of Age Group of Parks Users According to Sex and Activity Area by Neighborhood SES, in Bucaramanga, Colombia, 2015 Female Male Low SES (1−3), n = 4842 High SES (4−6), n = 13,675 Low SES (1−3), n = 11,331 High SES (4

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Thelma S. Horn

( Barnett, Ridgers, Zask, & Salmon, 2015 ; Barnett et al., 2016 ) are especially valuable as they link perceived and actual constructs to the same or similar skills (locomotor, object control, and active play). In previous years, researchers from the social psychology of sport and physical activity area