To examine the effects of elk velvet antler supplementation (EVA) combined with training on resting and exercise-stimulated hormonal response, male (n = 25) and female (n = 21) rowers ingested either E VA (560 mg/d) or placebo (PL) during 10 wk of training. VO2max, 2000 m rowing time, leg and bench press strength were determined before and after 5 and 10 wk of training. Serum hormone levels were measured prior to and 5 and 60 min after a simulated 2000 m rowing race. VO2max and strength increased and 2000 m times decreased similarly (P < 0.05) with training. There was no significant difference between the EVA and PL group for any hormonal response. Testosterone (males only) and growth hormone (both genders) were higher 5 min after the simulated race (P < 0.05) but returned to baseline at 60 min. Cortisol was higher 5 and 60 min compared to rest (both genders) (P < 0.05) and was higher 60 min post-exercise following 5 and 10 wk of training. It appears that 10 wk of EVA supplementation does not significantly improve rowing performance nor alter hormonal responses at rest or after acute exercise than training alone.
Daniel G. Syrotuik, Kirsten L. MacFadyen, Vicki J. Harber and Gordon J. Bell
Caterina Pesce, Lucio Cereatti, Rita Casella, Carlo Baldari and Laura Capranica
This study investigated the visual attention of older expert orienteers and older adults not practicing activities with high attentional and psychomotor demands, and considered whether prolonged practice of orienteering may counteract the age-related deterioration of visual attentional performance both at rest and under acute exercise. In two discriminative reaction time experiments, performed both at rest and under submaximal physical workload, visual attention was cued by means of spatial cues of different sizes followed, at different stimulus-onset asynchronies, by compound stimuli with local and global target features. Orienteers, as compared to nonathletes, showed a faster reaction speed and a complex pattern of attentional differences depending on the time constraints of the attentional task, the demands on endogenous attentional control, and the presence or absence of a concomitant effortful motor task. Results suggest that older expert orienteers have developed attentional skills that outweigh, at least at rest, the age-related deficits of visual attentional focusing.
Jeffrey A. Woods and Brandt D. Pence
Exercise immunology is a relatively new discipline in the exercise sciences that seeks to understand how exercise affects the immune system and susceptibility to infectious and chronic diseases. This brief review will focus on three major observations that have driven the field to date including: (1) acute exercise-induced leukocytosis, (2) the observation that intense, prolonged exercise results in upper respiratory tract symptoms, and (3) the paradoxical effect of acute and chronic exercise on inflammation. This framework will be used to examine the mechanisms and implications behind these seminal observations. Data generally support the conclusion that moderate intensity exercise enhances immune function, whereas prolonged, intense exercise diminishes immune function.
Ira Jacobs, Ethan Ruderman and Mackenzie McLaughlin
A traditional focus of exercise scientists studying the interaction of drugs and exercise has been on the effects of drugs on exercise performance or functional capacity. In contrast, there is limited information available about the effects of exercise on the efficacy of drugs that have been prescribed and ingested for therapeutic reasons. Those requesting the approval for the manufacture, distribution, and sale of new drugs to the public are required to submit evidence of drug effectiveness and safety to drug regulatory bodies. But, there is no associated requirement to include among that evidence the interactions of exercise with drugs. However, the physiological adaptations to acute and chronic exercise are such that there is good reason to suspect that exercise has the potential to significantly influence drug absorption and bioavailability, drug distribution within the body, and drug elimination from the body. This paper reviews the potential for interaction between exercise and pharmacokinetics.
Athanasios Z. Jamurtas, Antonios Stavropoulos-Kalinoglou, Stilianos Koutsias, Yiannis Koutedakis and Ioannis Fatouros
Childhood obesity is increasing alarmingly, and a strong association with chronic diseases has been established. Specific adipokines are released from the adipose tissue and relate with chronic diseases even in the pediatric population. Adiponectin levels are lower in obesity and increase with decreasing body weight. A few pediatric studies examining a possible relationship between resistin and obesity do not provide a clear picture. Most studies agree that visfatin levels appear elevated in childhood obesity. Exercise seems to increase adiponectin levels whereas resistin levels are reduced. The lack of data on the effects of acute and chronic exercise on visfatin levels precludes us from making safe conclusions as to what the effects of exercise (acute or chronic) would be on visfatin levels in children. Clearly, exercise has an impact on the adipose tissue and the release of adiponectin, resistin, and visfatin. However, other factors affect the secretion rate of these adipokines from the adipose tissue; these factors should also be taken into consideration when examining the effects of exercise on adipokines. Gender, age, body composition, physical activity levels, mode and intensity of exercise are some of the factors that should be looked into in future studies.
Irene Torres-Sánchez, Araceli Ortiz-Rubio, Irene Cabrera-Martos, María Granados-Santiago, Isabel López-Torres and Marie Carmen Valenza
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Yasmeen Mezil, J. Obeid, Sandeep Raha, Thomas J. Hawke and Brian W. Timmons
. Ploeger HE , Takken T , de Greef MHG , Timmons BW . The effects of acute and chronic exercise on inflammatory markers in children and adults with a chronic inflammatory disease: a systematic review . Exerc Immunol Rev . 2009 ; 15 : 6 – 41 . PubMed ID: 19957870 19957870 37. Roubenoff R
Charity B. Breneman, Christopher E. Kline, Delia West, Xuemei Sui and Xuewen Wang
of Behavioral Medicine, 38 , 427 – 449 . PubMed ID: 25596964 doi:10.1007/s10865-015-9617-6 10.1007/s10865-015-9617-6 Kubitz , K.A. , Landers , D.M. , Petruzzello , S.J. , & Han , M. ( 1996 ). The effects of acute and chronic exercise on sleep: A meta-analytic review . Sports Medicine
Sergio Estrada-Tenorio, José A. Julián, Alberto Aibar, José Martín-Albo and Javier Zaragoza
JW , O’Connor H , O’Dwyer N , Orr R . The effect of acute and chronic exercise on cognitive function and academic performance in adolescents: a systematic review . J Sci Med Sport . 2017 ; 20 ( 9 ): 841 – 848 . PubMed ID: 28185806 doi:10.1016/j.jsams.2016.11.025 10.1016/j.jsams.2016
Renee Engeln, Margaret Shavlik and Colleen Daly
). A meta-analysis on the anxiety-reducing effects of acute and chronic exercise . Sports Medicine, 11 , 143 – 182 . PubMed ID: 1828608 doi:10.2165/00007256-199111030-00002 10.2165/00007256-199111030-00002 Prichard , I. , & Tiggemann , M. ( 2008 ). Relations among exercise type, self