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Pedro L. Valenzuela, Guillermo Sánchez-Martínez, Elaia Torrontegi, Javier Vázquez-Carrión, Manuela González, Zigor Montalvo and Grégoire P. Millet

benefits, it is important to determine the physiological and psychological stress that they elicit to optimize periodization, maximize training-induced adaptations, and minimize overtraining and injury risk. Some studies have previously analyzed the acute response to an RS or high-intensity interval

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Jason Brandenburg and David Docherty

Purpose:

To examine the acute response to 2 resistance-exercise protocols performed to repetition failure, but different in load configuration, and determine whether the acute response was related to strength increases after 8 weeks of training.

Methods:

Eighteen resistance-trained men completed a single session of 2 resistance-exercise protocols. The constant-load protocol (CL) required subjects to complete 3 sets of single-arm preacher curls (elbow flexion) to failure using a load of ~77% 1RM. The reduced-load protocol (RL) was similar, but training load was reduced for the second and third sets. Maximal isometric force (MVIC) and blood lactate were assessed preprotocol and postprotocol to determine the acute response. For the 8-week training phase, subjects (N = 12) were divided into 2 programs, each corresponsing to 1 of the protocols. Strength was measured before and after training.

Results:

MVIC decreased from 106.2 ± 13.8 to 84.3 ± 12.1 N · m and from 109.1 ± 14.7 to 82.5 ± 13 N · m after the CL and RL protocols, respectively. The decrements in MVIC were significant (P < .001), with the decline after RL tending to be greater (P = .051). Postprotocol blood lactate concentrations after CL and RL were 3.4 ± 1.1 and 4.1 ± 1.3 mmol/L, respectively, with greater increases after RL (P = .036). Similar and significant 1RM strength increases were observed after both programs (from 20.7 ± 2.7 to 23.3 ± 3.5 kg after CL and from 22.4 ± 2.9 to 25.5 ± 3.2 kg after RL; P < .001).

Conclusion:

The similar increases in strength suggest that either the greater acute response to RL was not related to the increases in strength or a minimal (threshold) response was achieved during both programs.

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Elaine M. Murtagh, Colin Boreham, Alan Nevill, Gareth Davison, Tom Trinick, Ellie Duly, Mawloud El-Agnaf and Marie H. Murphy

Background:

Markers of inflammation are emerging as novel indices of cardiovascular risk. These markers have been shown to alter acutely after intense exercise; however, the effects of more moderate intensity exercise in healthy individuals is not known. Walking forms a cornerstone of physical activity promotion, so the inflammatory response to this exercise merits investigation. This study evaluated the effects of a 45-min walk on C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin 6 (IL-6), in sedentary, overweight men.

Methods:

Fifteen men (49.7 ± 5.9 y) walked for 45 min at 60 to 70% of predicted maximum heart rate. Fasted blood samples were taken prior to and immediately 1 hr and 24 h post-walk.

Results:

IL-6 decreased from 1 h post-walk to 24 h post-walk (P < 0.01). No significant changes were observed in CRP.

Conclusions:

These findings suggest that 45 min walking at 60 to 70% HRmax-p causes a decrease in IL-6 24 h post-exercise, but does not evoke a significant response in CRP levels.

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Gerhard Tschakert and Peter Hofmann

High-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE) has been applied in competitive sports for more than 100 years. In the last decades, interval studies revealed a multitude of beneficial effects in various subjects despite a large variety of exercise prescriptions. Therefore, one could assume that an accurate prescription of HIIE is not relevant. However, the manipulation of HIIE variables (peak workload and peak-workload duration, mean workload, intensity and duration of recovery, number of intervals) directly affects the acute physiological responses during exercise leading to specific medium- and long-term training adaptations. The diversity of intermittent-exercise regimens applied in different studies may suggest that the acute physiological mechanisms during HIIE forced by particular exercise prescriptions are not clear in detail or not taken into consideration. A standardized and consistent approach to the prescription and classification of HIIE is still missing. An optimal and individual setting of the HIIE variables requires the consideration of the physiological responses elicited by the HIIE regimen. In this regard, particularly the intensities and durations of the peak-workload phases are highly relevant since these variables are primarily responsible for the metabolic processes during HIIE in the working muscle (eg, lactate metabolism). In addition, the way of prescribing exercise intensity also markedly influences acute metabolic and cardiorespiratory responses. Turn-point or threshold models are suggested to be more appropriate and accurate to prescribe HIIE intensity than using percentages of maximal heart rate or maximal oxygen uptake.

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Patrick P.J.M. Schoenmakers, Florentina J. Hettinga and Kate E. Reed

, 1-min recovery; 2MIN, 2-min recovery; 3MIN, 3-min recovery; 4MIN, 4-min recovery; ACT, active recovery; AIT, aerobic interval training; AR, acute responses; [BLa], blood lactate concentration; CON, control group; FFM, fat-free body mass; H+, hydrogen ions; HR, heart rate; HR130, recovery duration

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Brian Killinger, Jakob D. Lauver, Luke Donovan and John Goetschius

rehabilitation is to establish whether these acute responses can be induced within the lower-leg muscles of CAI patients. Therefore, the primary purposes of this study were to examine the effects of BFR on muscle activation and oxygen saturation during submaximal eversion and dorsiflexion resistance exercises in

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Keith Tolfrey, Julia Kirstey Zakrzewski-Fruer and Alice Emily Thackray

). Relatively little is known comparatively regarding the acute responses to PA breaks in young people. Specifically, Belcher et al ( 2 ) reported that 3-minute light-intensity walking breaks every 30 minutes reduced postprandial glucose and insulin concentrations in children aged 7–11 years, whereas Saunders

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David R. Hooper, William J. Kraemer, Rebecca L. Stearns, Brian R. Kupchak, Brittanie M. Volk, William H. DuPont, Carl M. Maresh and Douglas J. Casa

elite ultraendurance athletes in the world. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to assess the basal concentrations of testosterone and cortisol in elite triathletes, as well as to assess the impact of the race on the acute responses of these hormones. A secondary purpose of the study was to assess

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Dana M. Otzel, Chris J. Hass, Erik A. Wikstrom, Mark D. Bishop, Paul A. Borsa and Mark D. Tillman

baseline within 1 to 10 minutes post-WBV. 19 , 23 – 25 Although changes in MN pool excitability have been investigated in healthy adults following WBV the response in individuals with CAI is unknown. 19 – 25 Before implementing the long-term application of WBV, determining acute responses of the therapy

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Edmund O. Acevedo and Aaron L. Slusher

The relationship between stress and disease, in particular cardiovascular disease, has long been recognized, whereas the study of the physiological mechanisms that explain this link has only more recently received attention. The acute response to stress is generally thought to be a critically important adaptation designed to activate the system in preparation to cope with the stressor. However, prolonged stimulation of the system (acute and chronic) can lead to deleterious adaptations including the release of inflammatory cytokines (small proteins important in cell signaling) that play a critical role in the development of atherosclerosis. Scientists have therefore used a breadth of protocols and methods to identify the complexity of our fight-or-flight response and demonstrate the synergy between perception, the stress response, physical activity, and health. In addition, the critical assessment of cellular health, the gut microbiome, and genetic polymorphisms have further advanced our understanding of additional therapeutic targets against CVD.