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Francisco Tavares, Martyn Beaven, Júlia Teles, Dane Baker, Phil Healey, Tiaki B. Smith and Matthew Driller

, it may decrease swelling and acute inflammation from muscle damage. 7 Furthermore, the use of cold-water immersion (CWI) contributes to a reduction in nerve conduction properties and to a decrease in muscle spasm and pain. 7 CWI in an acute rugby setting (<48-h postexercise) has been effective in

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Serge Brand, Markus Gerber, Flora Colledge, Edith Holsboer-Trachsler, Uwe Pühse and Sebastian Ludyga

). Interestingly, acute aerobic exercise has been shown to increase ventral prefrontal cortex activity ( Fumoto et al., 2010 ) and to promote performance on frontal lobe-dependent tasks ( Chang, Labban, Gapin, & Etnier, 2012 ). In this respect, a recent meta-analysis found improved executive functioning following

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SeYun Park and Jennifer L. Etnier

Scientists have explored the potential benefits of exercise for cognitive performance since the 1950s with interest in both a single session of exercise (acute) and long-term participation in exercise (chronic). When reviewed meta-analytically, acute exercise is shown to have a small, positive

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Chun-Chih Wang, Brandon Alderman, Chih-Han Wu, Lin Chi, Su-Ru Chen, I-Hua Chu and Yu-Kai Chang

Recent systematic reviews and meta-analyses have demonstrated significant positive effects of acute exercise on cognitive function ( Chang, Labban, Gapin, & Etnier, 2012 ; Lambourne & Tomporowski, 2010 ; McMorris & Hale, 2015 ). However, the effects reported to describe the association between

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Jeffrey D. Labban and Jennifer L. Etnier

; Etnier et al., 1997 ; Lambourne & Tomporowski, 2010 ) reviews of the literature converge on the notion that acute exercise can have a positive impact on cognitive performance when the cognitive task is performed after the exercise session. When reviewing this literature, one important consideration is

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Jennifer K. Sansom and Beverly D. Ulrich

controls using crutches ( Bare et al., 2001 ; Fisher & Patterson, 1981 ; Moore et al., 2001 ). However, the acute energy efficiency for children with MMC while walking with a posterior rolling walker or forearm crutches is unknown, especially compared with alternative ADs. Because use of walkers and

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Mary Lynn Manduca and Stephen J. Straub

normal concentration of platelets in an injured area to promote healing and decrease recovery time. 3 Despite the proposed benefits, the effect of PRP on hamstring injuries is unclear. Focused Clinical Question Does the combination of PRP injection and rehabilitation decreased recovery time of acute

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André L. Estrela, Aline Zaparte, Jeferson D. da Silva, José Cláudio Moreira, James E. Turner and Moisés E. Bauer

changes in immunological, inflammatory, and hormonal parameters that can be measured at rest, over the course of a day, or in response to acute exercise ( Gleeson, 2002 ; Kellmann, 2010 ; Meeusen et al., 2013 ). Although the effects of a high volume of training have been well described in young adults

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Robert Vallandingham, Zachary Winkelmann, Lindsey Eberman and Kenneth Games

Key Points ▸ Discerning the mechanism of injury was the most frequently practiced recommendation. ▸ Retrospective chart reviews are necessary for improvement of care in athletic training. ▸ Bracing and taping after injury were underreported for the patients. Acute ankle sprains are among the most

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Linda Paschen, Tim Lehmann, Miriam Kehne and Jochen Baumeister

found after both chronic (training involving multiple sessions over a longer period) and acute (short-term single bout of exercise) physical exercise. Although chronic physical exercise has been described to evoke structural changes in gray and white matter of the brain ( 3 ), EF can also be improved