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Gershon Tenenbaum, Andrew Lane, Selen Razon, Ronnie Lidor and Robert Schinke

We introduce a two-perception probabilistic concept of adaptation (TPPCA), which accounts for fast and slow adaptation processes. The outcome of both processes depends on the perceptual difference (termed herein a quantum) of how an individual perceives his or her abilities, skills, and capacities (βv) to interact, cope, and perform a given task (δi). Thus, the adaptation process is determined by (βv – δi). Fast adaptation processes target aspects that require immediate responses while slow adaptation processes involve ongoing adaptation to long-term demands. We introduce the TPPCA in several domains of inquiry, which rely on fast adaptation processes (perceptual–cognitive–action coupling, performance routines, psychological crisis, reversal states), slow adaptation processes (i.e., career aspirations, burnout), and processes that can be either fast or slow (i.e., flow, affect and mood changes, emotion regulation).

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Robert J. Schinke, Randy C. Battochio, Timothy V. Dube, Ronnie Lidor, Gershon Tenenbaum and Andrew M. Lane

Sport researchers have considered the processes that elite athletes undergo to achieve positive psychological adaptation during significant chronic stressors throughout sport careers and also, acute stressors within important competitions. This review contains a description of competitive and organizational stressors that can hamper an elite athlete’s pursuit of adaptation within the aforementioned circumstances, followed by an identification of the responses that together can foster the desired outcome of adaptation. The authors propose that there are four parts that contribute to an elite athlete’s positive psychological adaptation, presented as parts of a process: (a) the appraisal of stressors, (b) coping strategies, (c) self-regulation strategies, and (d) a consolidated adaptation response. Subsequently, athlete adaptation is considered through examples taken from anecdotal literature and formal research studies pertaining to elite athlete adaptation. Implications are discussed for sport psychologists, mental training consultants, sport scientists, coaches, and athletes.

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Robert J. Schinke, Gershon Tenenbaum, Ronnie Lidor and Andrew M. Lane

Within this opportunity to dialogue in commentary exchange about a previously conceived adaptation model, published in the Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology, we revisit the utility of our model (Schinke et al., 2012a) and consider Tamminen and Crocker’s (2014) critique of our earlier writing. We also elaborate on emotion and emotion regulation through explaining hedonistic and instrumental motives to regulate emotions. We draw on research from general and sport psychology to examine emotion regulation (Gross, 2010). We argue that when investigating emotion, or any topic in psychology, the process of drawing from knowledge in a different area of the discipline can be useful, especially if the existing knowledge base in that area is already well developed. In particular, we draw on research using an evolutionary perspective (Nesse & Ellsworth, 2009). Accounting for these issues, we clarify the adaptation framework, expand it, and arguably offer a model that has greater utility for use with athletes in relation to training and competition cycles and progressions throughout their career. We also clarify for the readership places of misinterpretation by the commentary authors, and perhaps, why these have resulted.

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Randy C. Battochio, Robert J. Schinke, Danny L. Battochio, Wayne Halliwell and Gershon Tenenbaum

Through adaptation studies in elite sport, researchers can delineate the strategies that amateur and professional athletes employ during career transitions (e.g., promotion, relocation). Fiske (2004) identified five core motives as catalysts to adaptation: understanding, controlling, self-enhancement, belonging, and trusting, which were recently contextualized in sport as a result of one archival study examining the second hand experiences of National Hockey League (NHL) players. The purpose of the present study was to learn about the adaptation process of NHL players based on a first hand data source (i.e., semi-structured interview). A semi-structured open-ended interview guide was utilized to learn about the experiences of four groups of NHL players (n = 11): prospects (n = 3), rookies (n = 3), veterans (n = 2), and retirees (n = 3). There is an indication that adaptation strategies and sub-strategies vary according to the player’s career stage and the challenges related to seeking and maintaining a roster spot. The findings are also consistent with Fiske’s five core motives and earlier adaptation sub-strategies, in addition to uncovering three novel sub-strategies (i.e., understanding one’s performance, distraction control, and trusting player agents). Implications and recommendations are provided for sport researchers and practitioners.

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Christoph von Lassberg, Karl Beykirch, Jennifer L. Campos and Jürgen Krug

This study investigated long-term adaptations of smooth pursuit eye movement characteristics in high-level gymnasts and compared these responses to those of nonathletes. Gymnasts were selected because of their exceptional ability to spatially orient during fast, multiaxial whole body rotations. Participants were tested with standardized and supra-maximal sinusoidal smooth pursuit measurements. The results showed significantly higher gain values in top-level gymnasts, followed by young federal team gymnasts, followed by the nonathlete control group. By testing participants over the course of three years and also after periods of abstinence from training, changes to patterns of smooth pursuit over time are revealed. These results have interesting implications for understanding the characteristics of eye-movements in expert populations as well as understanding the general principles that underlie oculomotor adaptation.

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Ryan Sides, Graig Chow and Gershon Tenenbaum

The purpose of this study was to explore adaptation through the manipulation of perceived task difficulty and self-efficacy to challenge the concepts postulated by the two-perception probabilistic concept of the adaptation phenomenon (TPPCA) conceptual framework. Twenty-four randomized performers completed a handgrip and putting task, at three difficulty levels, to assess their self-efficacy and perceived task difficulty interactions on motivations, affect, and performances. The TPPCA was partially confirmed in both tasks. Specifically, as the task difficulty level increased, arousal increased, pleasantness decreased, and the performance declined. There was no solid support that motivational adaptations were congruent with the TPPCA. The findings pertaining to the human adaptation state represent a first step in encouraging future inquiries in this domain. The findings clarify the notion of perceived task difficulty and self-efficacy discrepancy, which then provokes cognitive appraisals and emotional resources to produce an adaptation response.

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Theo Mulder, Rob den Otter and Baziel van Engelen

The flexibility of the human motor system is remarkable. Even when parts of the system are damaged, the output often remains optimal or near-optimal. The neuromotor system is designed to keep the output optimal by shifting between input sources. This capability is termed the principle of continuous adaptation. This article describes an experiment in which patients suffering from a hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy, type la (Charcot Marie Tooth disease, type la), had to perform fine motor movements. We examined whether they were able to regulate these movements in spite of the fact that the somatosensory input and motor output was substantially impaired as a result of the chronic, slowly progressing neuropathy. It was predicted that these patients were able to perform fine movements as long as the movements were well known and over-learned. Furthermore, it was predicted that these patients would compensate for the loss of somatosensory information by becoming more dependent on vision. A second prediction was that the quality of the motor performance would break down when these patients had to perform a novel motor pattern. The performance of the patients (n = 10) was contrasted with the performance of 20 healthy subjects. The results indicated that the patients, indeed, were able to perform the over-learned movements and that their performance deteriorated significantly when they had to perform a novel motor pattern. No indication, however, could be found for visual compensation.

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Jaimie A. Roper, Ryan T. Roemmich, Mark D. Tillman, Matthew J. Terza and Chris J. Hass

, 11 By expanding the current knowledge of split-belt treadmill walking adaptation into the frontal plane, we aim to advance our understanding of how humans execute split-belt walking (SBW) and also how gait speed influences frontal plane mechanics. Previously, Sawers and colleagues observed frontal

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Wigand Poppendieck, Melissa Wegmann, Anne Hecksteden, Alexander Darup, Jan Schimpchen, Sabrina Skorski, Alexander Ferrauti, Michael Kellmann, Mark Pfeiffer and Tim Meyer

possible chronic effect of CWI (eg, after each training session) might be interesting to athletes as well. Physiologically, it appears plausible that frequent CWI after exercise may have detrimental effects on the magnitude of training adaptations. This theory implies that postexercise fatigue and

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Eric S. Rawson, Mary P. Miles and D. Enette Larson-Meyer

well studied (see Hector & Phillips, 2018 ). Further, some supplements, such as caffeine and carbohydrate, may augment both muscle and brain performance (see Peeling et al., 2018 ). There is also research indicating that some other dietary supplements may be valuable in enhancing muscular adaptations