This paper is a call to Adapted Physical Activity (APA) professionals to increase the reflexive nature of their practice. Drawing upon Foucault’s concept of governmentality (1977) APA action may work against its own publicized goals of empowerment and self-determination. To highlight these inconsistencies, we will draw upon historical and social factors that explain the implicit dangers of practice not following policy. We propose that APA practitioners work according to ethical guidelines, based upon a capabilities approach (Nussbaum, 2006, 2011; Sen, 2009) to counteract possible adverse effects of APA practitioner action. A capabilities approach is conducive to the development of each individual’s human potential, by holistically considering the consequences of physical activity (i.e., biological, cultural, social, and psychological dimensions). To conclude, this paper will offer suggestions that may lead to an ethical reflection aligned with the best interest of APA’s users.
Carla Filomena Silva and P. David Howe
ethically be fixed ( Hobbs & Rice, 2013 ). In short, “The Heterosexual Questionnaire” was an axiological intervention. In this article, I am attempting to make a similar axiological intervention within the context of adapted physical activity (APA): one that renders noticeable the tacit values, and ethical
Rebecca T. Marsh Naturkach and Donna L. Goodwin
reflection enable the identification of positive actions for improvement in future encounters. Undergraduate university instructors have historically used disability-related CSL to prepare adapted physical activity students for professional practice ( Connolly, 1994 ; DePauw, 2000 ; Hodge & Jansma, 1999
Øyvind F. Standal, Tor Erik H. Nyquist and Hanne H. Mong
Adapted physical activity (APA) is a slippery term. It has had various definitions throughout the years ( Reid, 2003 ; Sherrill & DePauw, 1997 ), and currently (as of November 2017), the European Federation of APA states that its definition is an object of discussion and may therefore evolve over
Amanda Ebert and Donna L. Goodwin
Those who work in the realm of adapted physical activity (APA) are committed to advancing well-being, opportunities for physical activity, and engagement of disabled people 1 in society ( Goodwin & Rossow-Kimball, 2012 ). Professionals in the multidisciplinary field of APA draw from many parent
Barry Lavay and Peggy Lasko-McCarthey
To successfully conduct quality research, professionals in adapted physical activity (APA) must address a number of unique and challenging issues. These issues include difficulty in acquiring large and homogenous samples; developing valid, reliable, and commercially available test instruments and protocols specific to persons with disabilities; properly training doctoral students to conduct quality research; and maintaining a specific research focus. With regard to these issues, this paper provides the following recommendations: utilize alternative research designs; acquire adequate graduate research training; develop a research focus as an adapted physical activity researcher; and promote an interdisciplinary, collaborative research effort among professionals. Most important, through continued scholarly research adapted physical activity professionals will be able to expand the scientific body of knowledge.
Yeshayahu Hutzler and Claudine Sherrill
The purpose of this study was to describe international perspectives concerning terms, definitions, and meanings of adapted physical activity (APA) as (a) activities or service delivery, (b) a profession, and (c) an academic field of study. Gergen’s social constructionism, our theory, guided analysis of multiple sources of data via qualitative methodology. Data sources were online surveys, APA literature, and expertise of researchers. Findings, with the identification of further considerations, were provided for each APA component to stimulate reflection and further inquiry among international professionals with diverse backgrounds.
Donna L. Goodwin and Brenda Rossow-Kimball
There has been little critical exploration of the ethical issues that arise in professional practice common to adapted physical activity. We cannot avoid moral issues as we inevitably will act in ways that will negatively affect the well-being of others. We will make choices, which in our efforts to support others, may hurt by violating dignity or infringing on rights. The aim of this paper is to open a dialogue on what constitutes ethical practice in adapted physical activity. Ethical theories including principlism, virtue ethics, ethics of care, and relational ethics provide a platform for addressing questions of right and good and wrong and bad in the field of adapted physical activity. Unpacking of stories of professional practice (including sacred, secret, and cover stories) against the lived experiences of persons experiencing disability will create a knowledge landscape in adapted physical activity that is sensitive to ethical reflection.
Greg Reid and Heidi Stanish
Adapted physical activity has debated its professional and disciplinary status, but agreement has not been achieved. As a means of objectively evaluating the field for evidence of discipline status, the contents of APAQ (all issues between 1984-2000) and Clinical Kinesiology (1991-2000) were reviewed and compared against four criteria of a discipline: unique knowledge base, methodology, theoretical framework, and terminology. The review indicated that adapted physical activity has a distinct knowledge base but borrows considerable terminology, research methodology, and theory from allied fields. This is likely a reflection of our history, which has been tied to medicine, kinesiology, physical and special education, and some therapies. We conclude that adapted physical activity is a professional field of study with a crossdisciplinary knowledge base, rather than a discipline in its own right.
Greg Reid, Marcel Bouffard and Catherine MacDonald
Professional practice guided by the best research evidence is a usually referred to as evidence-based practice. The aim of the present paper is to describe five fundamental beliefs of adapted physical activity practices that should be considered in an 8-step research model to create evidence-based research in adapted physical activity. The five beliefs are individualization, critical thinking, self-determination, program effectiveness, and multifactor complexity. The research model includes conceptualize the problem, conduct research on the process of the problem, conceptualize and specify the intervention, evaluate intervention outcomes, evaluate intervention processes, determine person-by-treatment interactions, determine context-dependent limitations, and investigate factors related to intervention adoption maintenance. The eight steps are explained with reference to two research programs that used a randomized control group design.