students with disabilities in different contexts ( Caetano & Mendes, 2008 ; Machado & Almeida, 2014 ). The concept of education consulting involves a triad of interaction in which three parties generally act collaboratively: the consultant (adapted physical education [APE] teacher) assists the
Patricia Santos de Oliveira, Mey de Abreu van Munster, Joslei Viana de Souza and Lauren J. Lieberman
Andrea R. Taliaferro and Sean M. Bulger
The significance of adapted physical education (APE) practicum experiences in undergraduate physical education teacher education (PETE) programs is well documented. Researchers have described these hands-on service-learning opportunities as an essential and integral component of introductory APE
Martin E. Block and Philip Conatser
The purpose of this paper is to broaden the knowledge base regarding consulting in adapted physical education (APE). First, a definition and key characteristics of consulting are discussed. Second, a review of theoretical foundations and major characteristics of the two most common types of consulting models used in APE—behavior and organizational consulting—is presented. Third, the four most common roles of APE consultants—advocacy, trainer, fact finder, and process specialist—are examined. Fourth, the most common four-step consulting process (entry, diagnosis, implementation, and disengagement) is outlined and discussed. Finally, three major barriers to APE consulting—time to consult, administrative support, and attitudes and expectations of the consultee—are analyzed.
Chan Woong Park and Matthew D. Curtner-Smith
the APEs possessed teaching orientations at the time the study was completed. Many of them contrasted general physical education with adapted physical education, suggesting that the latter was “more distinguished” and had “more meaning and purpose.” There was also no indication that Bill’s teaching
Geoffrey D. Broadhead
It may be that important happenings during the 1960s and 1970s have helped to bring about the increased amount of published research in adapted physical education (APE), Three major research thrusts were identified which advanced the APE knowledge base: the evaluation of performance, physical education in the least restrictive environment, and effective programming. Specific suggestions were made for improving the quality of future research, and for the dissemination of research results.
Michael W. Churton
This article comprehensively reviews national legislation that affects the delivery of adapted physical education services. Legislation includes the Education of the Handicapped Act as amended by PL 99-457, the Rehabilitation Act as amended by PL 99-507, and the Developmental Disabilities Assistance and Bill of Rights Act as amended by PL 100-146. Direct and indirect references to physical education are presented for each act. An overview as to the legislative process is also described. Advocacy is discussed pertinent to the profession’s and the professionals’ responsibilities for ensuring that statutory language is implemented.
Walter E. Davis
Establishing goals for adapted physical education is of paramount importance. However, establishing goals is more than writing behavioral objectives and completing an IEP. Understanding and using goals is essential for effective teaching behaviors and ultimately for learning. For this purpose three important aspects of goals are introduced: intention, purpose, and meaning. A distinction is also made between primary and concomitant goals. The primary goals are the improvement of physical and motor fitness and the development and acquisition of motor skills. Concomitant means being achieved along with, and these goals include language, social, and cognitive skills. Also, a distinction is made between abstract concepts and concrete actions or tasks. Finally, providing information about the goal of each task is a major function of the instructor. Three modes of presentation are described. Goals may be specified symbolically (verbally), iconically (by demonstrations), or actively (by having the students move in a structured environment). Adherence to and further development of these concepts is important to the improvement of the teaching/learning process in adapted physical education.
Jean L. Pyfer
The vast majority of published research articles on adapted physical education between the years 1930 through 1969 were descriptive in design. During that 39-year span, 63 articles on adapted physical education appeared in Research Quarterly. Other journals that included adapted physical education studies were Training School Bulletin, American Journal of Mental Deficiency, Mental Retardation, Journal of the American Medical Association, Behavior Therapy, American Annals of the Deaf, Comparative Psychological Monographs, American Journal of Psychology, Perceptual and Motor Skills, and Exceptional Children.
Sherry L. Folsom-Meek
The use of parents of handicapped children as support personnel to augment adapted physical education instruction is discussed. Reports in the literature support supplementary instruction by parents to enhance children’s physical and motor development gains. Possible benefits include improvement of students’ motor abilities and fitness levels, enrichment of parent-child relationships, and strengthening of adapted physical education programs.
William A. Hillman
The development of adapted physical education over the past 20 years has been significantly influenced by the federal government through legislative statutes. A predecessor to Public Law 94-142 that may well have had the most impact on handicapped children was Public Law 90-170, which provided the foundation for adapted physical education by allowing monies for training research and development. This legislation established committees and conferences that brought together national figures to serve as advisory consultants. Programmatic support from the federal government has led to the training of many teachers and much published research in adapted physical education.