disparities in both mental ( Einfeld, Ellis, & Emerson, 2011 ; Emerson & Hatton, 2007 ; Platt, Keyes, McLaughlin, & Kaufman, 2019 ) and physical health ( Havercamp & Scott, 2015 ; Rimmer, Yamaki, Lowry, Wang, & Vogel, 2010 ). Participation in adapted sports and physical activities offered as part of school
Loriane Favoretto, Zach Hutchison, Claire M. Mowling and Melissa M. Pangelinan
Floor Morriën, Matthew J. D. Taylor and Florentina J. Hettinga
To provide an overview of biomechanical studies in Paralympic research and their relevance for performance in Paralympic sports.
The search terms paralympic biomechanics, paralympic sport performance, paralympic athlete performance, and paralympic athlete were entered into the electronic database PubMed.
Thirty-four studies were found. Biomechanical studies in Paralympics mainly contributed to performance enhancement by technical optimization (n = 32) and/or injury prevention (n = 6). In addition, biomechanics was found to be important in understanding activity limitation caused by various impairments, which is relevant for evidence-based classification in Paralympic sports (n = 6). Distinctions were made between biomechanical studies in sitting (41%), standing (38%), and swimming athletes (21%). In sitting athletes, mostly kinematics and kinetics in wheelchair propulsion were studied, mainly in athletes with spinal-cord injuries. In addition, kinetics and/or kinematics in wheelchair basketball, seated discus throwing, stationary shot-putting, hand-cycling, sit-skiing, and ice sledge hockey received attention. In standing sports, primarily kinematics of athletes with amputations performing jump sports and running and the optimization of prosthetic devices were investigated. No studies were reported on other standing sports. In swimming, mainly kick rate and resistance training were studied.
Biomechanical research is important for performance by gaining insight into technical optimization, injury prevention, and evidence-based classification in Paralympic sports. In future studies it is advised to also include physiological and biomechanical measures, allowing the assessment of the capability of the human body, as well as the resulting movement.
Rachel Cholerton, Jeff Breckon, Joanne Butt and Helen Quirk
“adapted” sports, defined as activities that are directed at those “who require adaptation for participation in the context of PA” ( Carlier, Mainguet, & Delevoye-Turrell, 2016 , p. 351). Other mainstream sports such as golf, where play is adapted based on a player’s ability, has been found to attract long
David Welch Suggs Jr. and Jason Lee Guthrie
Part of the goal of the International Paralympic Committee is to “touch the heart of all people for a more equitable society” by exposing people to adaptive sports, with the goal of improving public views toward people with disabilities. The authors hypothesized that exposure to parasocial contact with images of athletes with disabilities could lead to a change in attitude during the formation of social identity, disrupting the tendency to view the population of individuals with physical disabilities as “other. ” This case study found that viewing a documentary of a Paralympic sprinter produced in the same style as an Olympic feature appeared to affect the emotional components of attitude formation, especially when compared with respondents who viewed a comparable documentary about an able-bodied athlete. These findings are of interest to proponents of adaptive sports, producers of adaptive-sports media, and marketers who use athletes with disabilities in advertising campaigns.
Gabriella McLoughlin, Courtney Weisman Fecske, Yvette Castaneda, Candace Gwin and Kim Graber
participation in adapted sports ( Page, O’Connor, & Peterson, 2001 ). Athletes attribute motivation to the presence of other people (taking part in something that gives a person close contact with others) and to having opportunities for socialization with other AWPD. Those participating in team sports believed
Luis Columna, Denzil A. Streete, Samuel R. Hodge, Suzanna Rocco Dillon, Beth Myers, Michael L. Norris, Tiago V. Barreira and Kevin S. Heffernan
useful prizes collected during the scavenger hunt (e.g., balls with bells, cones). In another example, during the sports workshop, two adapted sports, goalball and beep baseball, were taught to the parents. While parents were participating in the sport training, their children participated in one
Joseph Peters, Ian Rice and Tyson Bull
As adapted sports continue to grow in both popularity and competitiveness, athletes seek to gain performance advantages through the optimization of their equipment and user interface. In sports where speed and handling are critical, athletes tend to favor equipment that tightly fits the body
Mário A.M. Simim, Marco Túlio de Mello, Bruno V.C. Silva, Dayane F. Rodrigues, João Paulo P. Rosa, Bruno Pena Couto and Andressa da Silva
The performance of elite athletes in adapted sports has improved significantly in recent decades ( Perret, 2017 ), mainly because of improvements in equipment, such as prostheses and wheelchairs ( Cooper & De Luigi, 2014 ; Laferrier et al., 2012 ; Perret, 2017 ). Wheelchair sports are
Patricia Santos de Oliveira, Mey de Abreu van Munster, Joslei Viana de Souza and Lauren J. Lieberman
perform the activity; answer parents’ questions; and establish contact between adapted sports teams and the school, among other parties. Role of PE consultants Conatser, P., & Block, M.E. (1998). Effective communication: An important factor in consulting. Palaestra, 14(3) , 22–26. United States To review
Jereme Wilroy and Elizabeth Hibberd
findings. Participants were recruited from a university-based adapted sports program; however, small team size and inclusion/exclusion criteria did limit the number of eligible participants. Future multisite trials with a control group are needed. There was no monitoring of the intervention to ensure