This study used animal models to examine potential similarities between dependence on physical activity (i.e., exercise) and dependence on morphine. Using C57BL/6 mice, the study also tested the hypothesis that physical exercise (e.g., long-term wheel running) may enhance vulnerability to the development of morphine dependence. The existence of an endorphin-related dependence induced by physical activity was also assessed. Naloxone was used to precipitate morphine withdrawal in mice accustomed to morphine. Specifically, the study sought to assess the intensity of addiction provoked by injection of morphine in mice that engaged in wheel-running activity as opposed to inactive mice. After 25 days of free access to activity wheel, mice that engaged in wheel-running demonstrated increased vulnerability to naloxone-induced withdrawal symptoms, which may be linked to activation of peripheral, as opposed to central, opioid receptors. These results indicate a behavioral interaction in which engaging in wheel running appears to potentiate the effects of morphine addiction. Implications of these findings for understanding human behavior and exercise addiction are also discussed.
Anthony Ferreira, Fabien Cornilleau, Fernando Perez-Diaz and Charles Cohen-Salmon
Jason Youngman and Duncan Simpson
Researchers have noted that when taken to an excessive level, exercise may become addictive. This study investigated the risk of exercise addiction for triathletes using the Exercise Addiction Inventory (EAI; Terry, Szabo, & Griffths, 2004). The sample consisted of 1,285 male and female triathletes, ranging in age from 18–70 years old. Results indicated that approximately 20% of triathletes are at risk for exercise addiction, and that training for longer distance races (i.e., Olympic, Half-Ironman, and Ironman) puts triathletes at greater risk for exercise addiction than training for shorter races (i.e., Sprint). No significant association was found between the risk for exercise addiction and the number of years of participating. However, as the number of weekly training hours increased, so did a triathlete’s risk for exercise addiction. At-risk triathletes need greater clinical attention, and further research should be conducted to help clinicians develop awareness and appropriate interventions.
Tanya McGuane, Stephen Shannon, Lee-Ann Sharp, Martin Dempster and Gavin Breslin
-loss methods “Horse racing is my life” Identity Addiction Impact on priorities and relationships “You do what you have to do” Learned helplessness Reframed acceptance Replacement of ability “This is our world” Methods of coping Social support of jockeys “Day In, Day Out” The theme “Day In Day Out” describes a
Column-editor : Leslee A. Fisher and Craig A. Wrisberg
This experiment examined, through quantitative measures, exercise dependence in subjects who had been running at least a year and ran at least 5 days a week. The subjects, 24 males and 9 females, were randomly assigned to groups according to the Solomon four-group design. Two groups ran and the other two did not on the day of the experiment. Pretests were given to one of the running and one of the nonrunning groups. Dependent variables were the Profile of Mood States (POMS) and galvanic skin response. Overall multivariate analysis showed a significant running by pretest interaction. The nonpretested running group revealed significantly lower depression (POMS) and GSR scores than the nonpretested nonrunning group. The results suggest that even slight variations from running schedules may have a negative effect on habitual runners.
Bryan C. Clift
organization recovering from poverty, addiction, legal issues, or lack of housing or employment demonstrated how they incorporated the practice of running into personally meaningful ways of life. They did so, however, amidst the discourses, structures, and processes that dictate personal responsibility
Hamid Najafipour, Masoomeh Kahnooji, Mohammad Reza Baneshi, Mahboobeh Yeganeh, Milad Ahmadi Gohari, Mitra Shadkam Farokhi and Ali Mirzazadeh
local or national level assessed psychological status or opium addiction as a CAD risk factor. Therefore, the objective of this study is to comprehensively describe the prevalence and pattern of LPA by age, sex, education, and occupation subgroups along with its 5-year incidence rate and also to
Russell T. Nye, Melissa Mercincavage and Steven A. Branstetter
How addiction severity relates to physical activity (PA), and if PA moderates the relation between PA and lung function among smokers, is unknown. This study explored the independent and interactive associations of nicotine addiction severity and PA with lung function.
The study used cross-sectional data from 343 adult smokers aged 40 to 79 participating in the 2009–10 and 2011–12 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Assessed were the independent relations of nicotine addiction severity, as measured by the time to first cigarette (TTFC), and average daily minutes of moderate and vigorous PA with lung function ratio (FEV1/FVC). Additional analysis examined whether PA moderated the relationship between addiction severity and lung function.
Greater lung function was independently associated with moderate PA and later TTFC, but not vigorous PA, when controlling for cigarettes per day (CPD), past month smoking, ethnicity, years smoked, and gender (P-values < .05). PA did not moderate the association between addiction severity (TTFC) and lung function (P = .441).
Among middle-aged to older smokers, increased PA and lower addiction severity were associated with greater lung function, independent of CPD. This may inform research into the protective role of PA and identification of risk factors for interventions.
Jeffery J. Summers, Victoria J. Machin and Gregory I. Sargent
This study was designed to examine some of the psychosocial factors underlying the recent marathon boom. A survey of 459 marathoners varying in age, sex, ability, and experience was conducted to assess their reasons for running a marathon, the outcomes derived, and their experiences during a marathon. Information was also sought regarding the psychological aspects of running in general, particularly the concept of addiction to running. Measures of addiction to running produced a consistent pattern of sex differences, with females evidencing higher levels of addiction than males. With respect to reasons for running a marathon and perceived outcomes, some interesting trends were evident as a function of age. It was suggested that the attraction of the marathon to people of all ages and abilities may lie partly in its unique ability to satisfy a wide range of needs, both extrinsic and intrinsic.
Mary Ann Carmack and Rainer Martens
The purpose of the study was to obtain descriptive information from runners concerning various aspects of their running, leading to the development and validation of a scale to measure Commitment to Running (CR) and to examine changes in state of mind during different segments ofa run. The subjects, 250 male and 65 female runners of varying levels of ability and experience, responded to a questionnaire which requested information regarding demographics, attitudes toward running, mental states during a run, and perceived outcomes of running. A 12-item Commitment to Running Scale was included in the questionnaire, and substantial support for its reliability and concurrent validity was provided. Significant differences were found on a number of variables which were expected to predict CR—specifically, length of run, discomfort experienced when a run is missed, and perceived addiction to running. Regression analysis indicated that perceived addiction, state of mind, and length of run are significant predictors of CR. The findings also support many of the popular notions regarding the concept of “positive addiction” to running and changes in mental state which occur during a run.