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Facilitators of Attendance and Adherence to Group-Based Physical Activity for Older Adults: A Literature Synthesis

Cassandra J. de Lacy-Vawdon, Ruth Klein, Joanna Schwarzman, Genevieve Nolan, Renee de Silva, David Menzies, and Ben J. Smith

investigation, within program delivery, of the range of factors that facilitate attendance and adherence by older participants. A systematic review of barriers and facilitators of falls-prevention programs, including falls-prevention classes and general PA classes, described social support, PA intensity, self

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Mental Toughness as a Determinant of Beliefs, Pain, and Adherence in Sport Injury Rehabilitation

Andrew R. Levy, Remco C.J. Polman, Peter J. Clough, David C. Marchant, and Keith Earle


To investigate the relationship between mental toughness, sport injury beliefs, pain, and adherence toward a sport injury rehabilitation program.


A prospective design was employed that evaluated adherence over the entire rehabilitation period.


70 patients undertaking a sport injury rehabilitation program for a tendonitis related injury.

Main Outcome Measures:

Adherence was measured using self report measures of clinic and home based rehabilitation alongside attendance.


No association was found between mental toughness and coping appraisals, although high mentally tough individuals displayed more positive threat appraisals and were better able to cope with pain than their less mentally tough counterparts. Greater attendance at rehabilitation sessions was displayed by more mentally tough individuals; however, more positive behavior during clinic rehabilitation was characterized by low mental toughness.


Despite the 0benefits of being mentally tough, sports medicine providers need to be aware that a high degree of mental toughness may have negative consequences upon rehabilitation behavior and subsequently recovery outcomes.

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Training Adherence in Adolescent Competitive Swimmers: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior

W. Kerry Mummery and Leonard M. Wankel

This study examined the ability of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to predict training adherence in a sample of adolescent competitive swimmers. Participants (N= 116, mean age = 14.8 years), who were drawn from 19 competitive swimming clubs from across Canada, completed measures relating to TPB before a major training cycle in their swim season. Results showed that training intention was significantly related to training behavior and that the direct measures of TPB (attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control) predicted a significant portion of the variance in the measure of training intention. Subsequently splitting the attitude measure into affective and instrumental components revealed that the instrumental portion of the attitudinal measure contributed significantly to predicting training intention, whereas the affective portion did not. These findings suggest that TPB offers insight into training behavior and that the two measures of evaluative attitude contribute differently to predicting training intention.

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The Role of Adherence in the Effects of a Mindfulness Intervention for Competitive Athletes: Changes in Mindfulness, Flow, Pessimism, and Anxiety

John Scott-Hamilton and Nicola S. Schutte

This study examined the role of degree of adherence in a mindfulness-based intervention on mindfulness, flow, sport anxiety, and sport-related pessimistic attributions in athletes. Twelve athletes participated in an 8-week mindfulness intervention which incorporated a mindfulness focus on movement training component. Participants completed baseline and posttest measures of mindfulness, flow, sport anxiety, and sport-related pessimistic attributions, and they filled out daily mindfulness-training logbooks documenting their frequency and duration of mindfulness practice. Participants were identified as either high adherence or low adherence with mindfulness-training based on a composite score of logbook practice records and workshop attendance. Athletes high in adherence, operationalized as following recommended practice of mindfulness exercises, showed significantly greater increases in mindfulness and aspects of flow, and significantly greater decreases in pessimism and anxiety than low adherence athletes. Greater increases in mindfulness from baseline to posttest were associated with greater increases in flow and greater decreases in pessimism. Increases in flow were associated with decreases in somatic anxiety and pessimism.

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Older Adults’ Experiences With the Visual Physio-Feedback Technology and Peer-Led Combined Group and Home-Based Exercises

Ladda Thiamwong

). However, adherence to home exercise for fall prevention is still low. It may be affected by home exercise program characteristics ( Simek, McPhate, & Haines, 2012 ) or by a discrepancy between perceived fall risk and physiological fall risk, which is called “maladaptive fall risk appraisal” ( Thiamwong

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Training-Monitoring Engagement: An Evidence-Based Approach in Elite Sport

Emma C. Neupert, Stewart T. Cotterill, and Simon A. Jobson

-platform compatible interface that is not burdensome to complete; however, it has also identified a worrying trend for dishonest or careless reporting in order to meet the sports adherence requirements. 2 , 10 Practitioners are often the driving force behind TMS, 3 with their scientific knowledge and interpersonal

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Tracking District and School Physical Education Time Policies After Legal Adjudication: A Case Study in California

David Kahan, Thomas L. McKenzie, Maya Satnick, and Olivia Hansen

 al. ( 2018 ) found that PE minutes increased postlawsuit, thus concluding that adherence had improved under a formalized and strong accountability structure. Four years after the suspension of external accountability in spring 2018 (i.e., schools no longer felt vulnerable), we uncovered a mixed bag. Compared

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Impact of “JolinchenKids—Fit and Healthy in Daycare” on Children’s Objectively Measured Physical Activity: A Cluster-Controlled Study

Berit Brandes, Christoph Buck, Marvin N. Wright, Claudia R. Pischke, and Mirko Brandes

To categorize the level of urbanity, children at DFs from municipalities with more than 20,000 inhabitants were classified as urban, whereas those at DFs from municipalities with fewer than 20,000 inhabitants were classified as rural. Process Evaluation Data To assess intervention dose and adherence

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Social Influence and Exercise: A Meta-Analysis

Albert V. Carron, Heather A. Hausenblas, and Diane Mack

Using meta-analysis, the impact of a number of manifestations of social influence (important others, family, class leaders, coexercisers, social cohesion, and task cohesion) on exercise behaviors (adherence and compliance), cognitions (intentions and efficacy), and affect (satisfaction and attitude) was examined. The results showed that social influence generally has a small to moderate positive effect (i.e., effect size [ES] from .20 to .50). However, four moderate to large effect sizes (i.e., ES from .50 to .80) were found: family support and attitudes about exercise, task cohesion and adherence behavior, important others and attitudes about exercise, and family support and compliance behavior.

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Let’s Walk Outdoors! Self-Paced Walking Outdoors Improves Future Intention to Exercise in Women With Obesity

Kleverton Krinski, Daniel G. S. Machado, Luciana S. Lirani, Sergio G. DaSilva, Eduardo C. Costa, Sarah J. Hardcastle, and Hassan M. Elsangedy

Physical activity is important for preventing and treating obesity ( Street, Wells, & Hills, 2015 ). Although physical activity is recommended as an integral component of most weight-loss interventions, the participation and adherence rates of individuals with obesity, and especially women, are