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Cassandra J. de Lacy-Vawdon, Ruth Klein, Joanna Schwarzman, Genevieve Nolan, Renee de Silva, David Menzies and Ben J. Smith

investigation, within program delivery, of the range of factors that facilitate attendance and adherence by older participants. A systematic review of barriers and facilitators of falls-prevention programs, including falls-prevention classes and general PA classes, described social support, PA intensity, self

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Andrew R. Levy, Remco C.J. Polman, Peter J. Clough, David C. Marchant and Keith Earle

Objective:

To investigate the relationship between mental toughness, sport injury beliefs, pain, and adherence toward a sport injury rehabilitation program.

Design:

A prospective design was employed that evaluated adherence over the entire rehabilitation period.

Participants:

70 patients undertaking a sport injury rehabilitation program for a tendonitis related injury.

Main Outcome Measures:

Adherence was measured using self report measures of clinic and home based rehabilitation alongside attendance.

Results:

No association was found between mental toughness and coping appraisals, although high mentally tough individuals displayed more positive threat appraisals and were better able to cope with pain than their less mentally tough counterparts. Greater attendance at rehabilitation sessions was displayed by more mentally tough individuals; however, more positive behavior during clinic rehabilitation was characterized by low mental toughness.

Conclusions:

Despite the 0benefits of being mentally tough, sports medicine providers need to be aware that a high degree of mental toughness may have negative consequences upon rehabilitation behavior and subsequently recovery outcomes.

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W. Kerry Mummery and Leonard M. Wankel

This study examined the ability of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to predict training adherence in a sample of adolescent competitive swimmers. Participants (N= 116, mean age = 14.8 years), who were drawn from 19 competitive swimming clubs from across Canada, completed measures relating to TPB before a major training cycle in their swim season. Results showed that training intention was significantly related to training behavior and that the direct measures of TPB (attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control) predicted a significant portion of the variance in the measure of training intention. Subsequently splitting the attitude measure into affective and instrumental components revealed that the instrumental portion of the attitudinal measure contributed significantly to predicting training intention, whereas the affective portion did not. These findings suggest that TPB offers insight into training behavior and that the two measures of evaluative attitude contribute differently to predicting training intention.

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John Scott-Hamilton and Nicola S. Schutte

This study examined the role of degree of adherence in a mindfulness-based intervention on mindfulness, flow, sport anxiety, and sport-related pessimistic attributions in athletes. Twelve athletes participated in an 8-week mindfulness intervention which incorporated a mindfulness focus on movement training component. Participants completed baseline and posttest measures of mindfulness, flow, sport anxiety, and sport-related pessimistic attributions, and they filled out daily mindfulness-training logbooks documenting their frequency and duration of mindfulness practice. Participants were identified as either high adherence or low adherence with mindfulness-training based on a composite score of logbook practice records and workshop attendance. Athletes high in adherence, operationalized as following recommended practice of mindfulness exercises, showed significantly greater increases in mindfulness and aspects of flow, and significantly greater decreases in pessimism and anxiety than low adherence athletes. Greater increases in mindfulness from baseline to posttest were associated with greater increases in flow and greater decreases in pessimism. Increases in flow were associated with decreases in somatic anxiety and pessimism.

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Emma C. Neupert, Stewart T. Cotterill and Simon A. Jobson

-platform compatible interface that is not burdensome to complete; however, it has also identified a worrying trend for dishonest or careless reporting in order to meet the sports adherence requirements. 2 , 10 Practitioners are often the driving force behind TMS, 3 with their scientific knowledge and interpersonal

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Marina Arkkukangas, Anne Söderlund, Staffan Eriksson and Ann-Christin Johansson

prerequisite and a challenge for positive health outcomes for older adults ( Buford, Anton, Clark, Higgins, & Cooke, 2014 ). Adherence to exercise among older adults is generally low and is known to decline over time; however, research addressing exercise adherence in the older adults is limited ( Picorelli

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Rod K. Dishman and Larry R. Gettman

A 20-week behavioral study was conducted involving adult males (N = 66) in programs of cardiovascular and muscular endurance training. The relationship between exercise adherence and selected psychological and biological variables was examined as was the ability of these variables to discriminate between exercise adherers and dropouts. Results indicated that percent body fat, self-motivation, and body weight discriminated (p < .05) between eventual adherers and dropouts. When combined within a psychobiologic prediction model, these variables accurately classified actual adherers and dropouts in approximately 80% of all cases and accounted for nearly 50% of the variance in adherence behavior. In addition, participants symptomatic with regard to coronary heart disease adhered for a shorter period of time (p < .01) than did those who were asymptomatic. Results did not support theoretical expectations related to the roles of attitude toward physical activity, self-perceptions of physical ability, or locus of health control in the adherence process. These data suggest that the assessment of self-motivation and body composition may substantially enhance the initial diagnosis of the dropout-prone exercise participant and may ultimately assist in adherence facilitation.

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Albert V. Carron, Heather A. Hausenblas and Diane Mack

Using meta-analysis, the impact of a number of manifestations of social influence (important others, family, class leaders, coexercisers, social cohesion, and task cohesion) on exercise behaviors (adherence and compliance), cognitions (intentions and efficacy), and affect (satisfaction and attitude) was examined. The results showed that social influence generally has a small to moderate positive effect (i.e., effect size [ES] from .20 to .50). However, four moderate to large effect sizes (i.e., ES from .50 to .80) were found: family support and attitudes about exercise, task cohesion and adherence behavior, important others and attitudes about exercise, and family support and compliance behavior.

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Oluwaseyi Osho, Oluwatoyosi Owoeye and Susan Armijo-Olivo

proven to lower the risk for falls and fall-related injuries in the community-dwelling older adults ( Arnold, Sran, & Harrison, 2008 ; Rose & Hernandez, 2010 ). However, decreased adherence (or compliance) and attrition in FPEPs have been a major challenge in program implementation ( McPhate, Simek

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André Luiz Galvim, Isabela Martins Oliveira, Tatiane Vieira Martins, Leonardo Moreira Vieira, Natália Caroline Cerri, Natália Oiring de Castro Cezar, Renata Valle Pedroso and Grace Angélica de Oliveira Gomes

special attention, because these individuals face many obstacles, such as inadequate space for practice, lack of information about PA benefits, time management, and other factors that impair their continuation in PA programs. 7 , 8 Adhesion and adherence to PA programs are closely related to self-care and