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Nicholas W. Baumgartner, Anne M. Walk, Caitlyn G. Edwards, Alicia R. Covello, Morgan R. Chojnacki, Ginger E. Reeser, Andrew M. Taylor, Hannah D. Holscher, and Naiman A. Khan

There is an abundance of evidence linking excess adiposity to compromised metabolic health and elevated chronic disease risk. However, excess adiposity has been linked to decrements in cognitive performance, along with a higher risk for cognitive decline in older age. 6 , 7 Although the cellular

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André O. Werneck, Evelyn C.A. Silva, Maria R.O. Bueno, Lidyane Z. Vignadelli, Adewale L. Oyeyemi, Catiana L.P. Romanzini, Enio R.V. Ronque, and Marcelo Romanzini

bout) and interruptions of sedentary behavior with at least light physical activity (breaks) ( 3 ). A recent systematic review found inconclusive results regarding the association of breaks and bouts of sedentary behavior with indicators of adiposity among children and adolescents ( 10 ). One out of 6

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Andreia Teixeira, Ronaldo Gabriel, Luis Quaresma, Ana Alencoão, José Martinho, and Helena Moreira

mediators and modifiers of this association. Intervention studies that promote PA in contact with natural environments and assess the levels of adiposity of participants were also considered to determine whether PA is a moderator of the effectiveness of natural spaces for weight control. We also aim to

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Trent J. Herda, Philip M. Gallagher, Jonathan D. Miller, Matthew P. Bubak, and Mandy E. Parra

Excessive adiposity is linked to type 2 diabetes, physical disability, lost production, and quality-adjusted life years ( 55 ). The medical and economic costs of excessive adiposity will surge to $646 billion per year by 2030 ( 55 ). Currently, >33% of youth in the United States are overweight or

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Chiaki Tanaka, Xanne Janssen, Mark Pearce, Kathryn Parkinson, Laura Basterfield, Ashley Adamson, and John J. Reilly

reviews also suggest that the influence of changes in objectively measured sedentary behavior (SB) on change in adiposity in children and adolescents was unclear. 3 – 5 Only a few previous longitudinal studies have reported on the associations between obesity as a predictor and SB or PA as an outcome

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Maria Jose Arias-Tellez, Francisco M. Acosta, Jairo H. Migueles, Jose M. Pascual-Gamarra, Elisa Merchan-Ramirez, Clarice M. de Lucena Martins, Jose M. Llamas-Elvira, Borja Martinez-Tellez, and Jonatan R. Ruiz

Recent studies have highlighted the existence of previously unrecognized fat depots that are likely to explain part of the increased cardiometabolic risk (CMR) related to obesity ( Karpe & Pinnick, 2015 ; Pandzic Jaksic et al., 2018 ). For instance, neck adipose tissue (NAT) has been shown to

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S. Nicole Fearnbach, Neil M. Johannsen, Corby K. Martin, Peter T. Katzmarzyk, Robbie A. Beyl, Daniel S. Hsia, Owen T. Carmichael, and Amanda E. Staiano

for cardiometabolic disease, such as whole-body adiposity ( 6 , 20 ). However, individuals with severe obesity are underrepresented in clinical exercise studies, often due to orthopedic or other safety concerns (eg, increased shortness of breath), hesitation to push participants to maximal effort, or

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Harshvardhan Singh, Bethany A. Moore, Roshita Rathore, Michael G. Bemben, and Debra A. Bemben

) physical activity and adiposity ( Bann et al., 2014 ; Hughes, Frontera, Roubenoff, Evans, & Fiatarone-Singh, 2002 ) and (b) sedentary activity and muscle mass in mid to late life in community-dwelling older adults ( Foong et al., 2016 ). Importantly, adiposity can lead to physical inactivity ( Petersen, Schnohr

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Alessandra Prioreschi and Lisa K. Micklesfield

these movement guidelines and various health outcomes, such as development, adiposity, and health-related quality of life. 6 , 7 However, very little published data exists for infants and toddlers at the younger end of the age spectrum (<2 y), and the potential associations with health outcomes. 6 , 8

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Oded Bar-Or and Tom Baranowski

This review examines the evidence that the level of physical activity (PA) or total energy expenditure during adolescence affects body adiposity in the obese and nonobese adolescent population. Several cross-sectional studies suggested that obese children were less physically active than their nonobese peers, but there was no consistent difference in the total energy expenditure. The likelihood that infants of obese mothers become obese at age 1 year is greater if their total energy expenditure (using the doubly labeled water technique) is lower at age 3 months. Many interventional studies in the general adolescent population show a small (1-3% body fat) reduction in adiposity as a result of physical training. It appears, though, that programs longer than one year are more efficacious than shorter programs. Lifestyle activities (e.g., walking to and from school) appear to have a more lasting effect than regimented activities (e.g., calisthenics or jogging).