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Nicholas W. Baumgartner, Anne M. Walk, Caitlyn G. Edwards, Alicia R. Covello, Morgan R. Chojnacki, Ginger E. Reeser, Andrew M. Taylor, Hannah D. Holscher and Naiman A. Khan

There is an abundance of evidence linking excess adiposity to compromised metabolic health and elevated chronic disease risk. However, excess adiposity has been linked to decrements in cognitive performance, along with a higher risk for cognitive decline in older age. 6 , 7 Although the cellular

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André O. Werneck, Evelyn C.A. Silva, Maria R.O. Bueno, Lidyane Z. Vignadelli, Adewale L. Oyeyemi, Catiana L.P. Romanzini, Enio R.V. Ronque and Marcelo Romanzini

bout) and interruptions of sedentary behavior with at least light physical activity (breaks) ( 3 ). A recent systematic review found inconclusive results regarding the association of breaks and bouts of sedentary behavior with indicators of adiposity among children and adolescents ( 10 ). One out of 6

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Chiaki Tanaka, Xanne Janssen, Mark Pearce, Kathryn Parkinson, Laura Basterfield, Ashley Adamson and John J. Reilly

reviews also suggest that the influence of changes in objectively measured sedentary behavior (SB) on change in adiposity in children and adolescents was unclear. 3 – 5 Only a few previous longitudinal studies have reported on the associations between obesity as a predictor and SB or PA as an outcome

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Alessandra Prioreschi and Lisa K. Micklesfield

these movement guidelines and various health outcomes, such as development, adiposity, and health-related quality of life. 6 , 7 However, very little published data exists for infants and toddlers at the younger end of the age spectrum (<2 y), and the potential associations with health outcomes. 6 , 8

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Oded Bar-Or and Tom Baranowski

This review examines the evidence that the level of physical activity (PA) or total energy expenditure during adolescence affects body adiposity in the obese and nonobese adolescent population. Several cross-sectional studies suggested that obese children were less physically active than their nonobese peers, but there was no consistent difference in the total energy expenditure. The likelihood that infants of obese mothers become obese at age 1 year is greater if their total energy expenditure (using the doubly labeled water technique) is lower at age 3 months. Many interventional studies in the general adolescent population show a small (1-3% body fat) reduction in adiposity as a result of physical training. It appears, though, that programs longer than one year are more efficacious than shorter programs. Lifestyle activities (e.g., walking to and from school) appear to have a more lasting effect than regimented activities (e.g., calisthenics or jogging).

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Brian Tyo, Rebecca Spataro-Kearns and David R. Bassett Jr.

( Banks-Wallace & Conn, 2002 ; Whitt-Glover, Brand, Turner, Ward, & Jackson, 2009 ) to help reduce chronic diseases commonly related to excessive adiposity such as type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and other illnesses/conditions. Pedometer-based interventions to increase walking may be especially beneficial

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Jason A. Mendoza, Jessica McLeod, Tzu-An Chen, Theresa A. Nicklas and Tom Baranowski

Background:

Childhood obesity is at record high levels in the US and disproportionately affects Latino children; however, studies examining Latino preschool children’s obesity-related risk factors are sparse. This study determined correlates of Latino preschoolers’ (ages 3–5 years) adiposity to inform future obesity interventions and policies.

Methods:

Latino preschoolers (n = 96) from 4 Head Start centers in Houston, Texas were recruited. Parents reported acculturation and neighborhood safety. Children’s and parents’ height and weight were measured. Children’s television (TV) viewing was measured by TV diaries and physical activity by accelerometers. Linear regression was used with body mass index (BMI) z-score as the dependent variable and covariates sequentially added and retained in 4 blocks: 1) child age, gender, parent education, and BMI; 2) neighborhood safety and parent and child acculturation; 3) TV viewing; and 4) moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA).

Results:

In the final model (n = 96), only neighborhood disorder (β = 0.30, P = .005) and MVPA (β = –0.21, P = .049) were significantly associated with BMI z-score.

Conclusions:

Among Latino preschoolers, higher neighborhood disorder and lower MVPA were associated with greater children’s BMI z-scores.

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Lennart Raudsepp and Toivo Jürimäe

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between physical activity and physical fitness and adiposity in a sample of 77 girls, aged 10–11 years. Physical activity was assessed by 7-day physical activity recall by which children reported how much time they spent on low and moderate-to-vigorous physical activities. Physical fitness was measured by EUROFIT test battery. Adiposity was estimated by sum of five skinfolds. The main finding of the study was that moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and adiposity were significant predictors (with 16–34% accounted variance) of physical fitness tests where the body mass affects performance. Indicators of physical activity and adiposity were not significantly related with fitness items requiring muscular strength, balance, flexibility, and speed of limb movement. Furthermore, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and aerobic fitness predicted 22% of variance in adiposity in girls.

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Melissa Hodge, Mary Hovinga, Kelley Gabriel, Linda Snetselaar, John Shepherd, Linda Van Horn, Victor Stevens, Brian Egleston, Alan Robson, Seungyoun Jung and Joanne Dorgan

This study prospectively investigates associations between youth moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) and body composition in young adult women using data from the Dietary Intervention Study in Children (DISC) and the DISC06 Follow-Up Study. MVPA was assessed by questionnaire on 5 occasions between the ages 8 and 18 years and at age 25-29 years in 215 DISC female participants. Using whole body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), overall adiposity and body fat distribution were assessed at age 25-29 years by percent body fat (%fat) and android-to-gynoid (A:G) fat ratio, respectively. Linear mixed effects models and generalized linear latent and mixed models were used to assess associations of youth MVPA with both outcomes. Young adult MVPA, adjusted for other young adult characteristics, was significantly inversely associated with young adult %fat (%fat decreased from 37.4% in the lowest MVPA quartile to 32.8% in the highest (p-trend = 0.02)). Adjusted for youth and young adult characteristics including young adult MVPA, youth MVPA also was significantly inversely associated with young adult %fat (β=-0.40 per 10 MET-hrs/wk, p = .02) . No significant associations between MVPA and A:G fat ratio were observed. Results suggest that youth and young adult MVPA are important independent predictors of adiposity in young women.

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Andréa L. Maslow, Anna E. Price, Xuemei Sui, Duck-chul Lee, Ikka Vuori and Steven N. Blair

Background:

This study examined the associations of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) with incident functional limitation (IFL) in adults.

Methods:

Patients (n = 2400), 30+ years [mean age, 45.2 (SD, 8.3); 12% women], completed a baseline health examination during 1979 to 1995. CRF was quantified by age-and sex-specific thirds for maximal treadmill exercise test duration. Adiposity was assessed by BMI and WC (grouped for analysis according to clinical guidelines). Incident IFL was identified from mail-back surveys during 1995, 1999, and 2004.

Results:

After adjusting for potential confounders and either BMI or WC, CRF was inversely related to IFL (P trend < .001). The association between BMI and IFL was significant after adjusting for all confounders (P trend = .002), but not after additional adjustment for CRF (P trend = .23). After controlling for all confounders and CRF, high WC was associated with greater odds of IFL in those aged 30 to 49; normal WC was associated with greater odds of IFL in those aged 50+.

Conclusions:

CRF was a significant predictor of IFL in middle aged and older adults, independent of overall or abdominal adiposity. Clinicians should consider the importance of preserving functional capacity by recommending regular physical activity for normal-weight and overweight individuals.