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Sheriece Sadberry and Michael Mobley

Research has shown that African American college students have a difficult time adjusting at predominately White institutions (PWIs) in comparison with historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs) with regard to both general and race-related stressors (Neville, Heppner, Ji, & Thye, 2004; Prillerman, Myers, & Smedley, 1989; Sedlacek, 1999). For college student-athletes, the campus environment can challenge their capacity to ft in and adhere to academic and social expectations, perhaps especially for Black student-athletes (BSA). The current study therefore examined the sociocultural and mental health adjustment of 98 BSA based on their perceived social support, perceived campus racial climate, team cohesion, and life events using latent profle analysis (LPA). Results indicated three distinct profile groups: Low Social Support/Cohesion, High Minority Stress, and High Social Support/Cohesion. Profiles were predictive of adjustment concerns and campus setting (PWIs vs. HBCUs), highlighting within-group differences among BSA. Implications for interventions to facilitate and support healthy adjustment and success for BSA are discussed.

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Caroline Divert, Heiner Baur, Guillaume Mornieux, Frank Mayer and Alain Belli

When mechanical parameters of running are measured, runners have to be accustomed to testing conditions. Nevertheless, habituated runners could still show slight evolutions of their patterns at the beginning of each new running bout. This study investigated runners' stiffness adjustments during shoe and barefoot running and stiffness evolutions of shoes. Twenty-two runners performed two 4-minute bouts at 3.61 m·s–1 shod and barefoot after a 4-min warm-up period. Vertical and leg stiffness decreased during the shoe condition but remained stable in the barefoot condition, p < 0.001. Moreover, an impactor test showed that shoe stiffness increased significantly during the first 4 minutes, p < 0.001. Beyond the 4th minute, shoe properties remained stable. Even if runners were accustomed to the testing condition, as running pattern remained stable during barefoot running, they adjusted their leg and vertical stiffness during shoe running. Moreover, as measurements were taken after a 4-min warm-up period, it could be assumed that shoe properties were stable. Then the stiffness adjustment observed during shoe running might be due to further habituations of the runners to the shod condition. To conclude, it makes sense to run at least 4 minutes before taking measurements in order to avoid runners' stiffness alteration due to shoe property modifications. However, runners could still adapt to the shoe.

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Etem Curuk, Yunju Lee and Alexander S. Aruin

While maintaining vertical posture, the central nervous system (CNS) uses two main types of adjustments in the activity of the leg and trunk muscles when dealing with body perturbations. Anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) control the position of the center of mass of the body by activating

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Gary S. Goldfield, Katherine Henderson, Annick Buchholz, Nicole Obeid, Hien Nguyen and Martine F. Flament

Objective:

To examine the association between volume and intensity of physical activity (PA) and depressive symptoms, anxiety, and body image in a large sample of adolescents in Ottawa and surrounding region.

Methods:

A total of 1259 (n = 746 girls and n = 513 boys) students responded to surveys on leisure time PA, depressive symptoms, anxiety, and body image.

Results:

A dose response effect of intensity of PA and psychological distress was observed whereby those who performed greater bouts of vigorous PA exhibited better psychological adjustment than adolescents engaging in mild to moderate intensity activity. Gender impacted the results as vigorous PA was associated with reduced depression but not anxiety in boys, and reduced anxiety but not depression in girls. The positive association between total volume of PA and psychological functioning in the overall sample was no longer significant when gender was considered, except for reduced anxiety in girls.

Conclusions:

Vigorous PA was associated with reductions in depressive symptoms, anxiety and improvements in body esteem in adolescents, but these associations were differentially influenced by gender. Future research is needed to elucidate the efficacy of vigorous PA as a treatment for mental health problems in male and female adolescents.

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Renato Claudino, Marcio José dos Santos and Giovana Zarpellon Mazo

of previous studies involving unpredictable body perturbations and muscular reactive responses (or compensatory adjustments) in the older population has externally perturbed body balance in quiet standing using moving force platforms that usually translate ( Halicka, Lobotkova, Bzduskova, & Hlavacka

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Keita Kamijo and Yuji Takeda

The relationship of physical activity to trial-by-trial adjustments of response conflict was assessed using behavioral task performance, the N2 event-related brain potential component, and phase-locking values (PLVs) in a lower gamma band during a perceptual conflict task. Nineteen physically active and 19 inactive young adults (mean age = 21.3 years) performed a Navon task, using a global letter made up of local letters of either the same kind (congruent trials) or a different kind (incongruent trials). Findings revealed that active individuals exhibited smaller N2 amplitudes and greater PLVs on incongruent trials that were preceded by incongruent trials compared with those preceded by congruent trials. Such phenomena were not observed for inactive individuals. These results suggest that greater physical activity is associated with larger trial-bytrial adjustments of response conflict, which we attribute to upregulation of top-down cognitive control and reductions in response conflict.

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Alexandra Reichenbach

Most studies investigating movement preparation report substantial longer reaction times than studies probing response times to adjust an ongoing movement. However, both behaviors constitute control processes that transform sensory information about the environment into motor commands. Smeets, Oostwoud Wijdenes, and Brenner (2016) base their review on the hypothesis of a qualitative difference between the two sensorimotor control processes. By ruling out that the three latter movement stages proposed by Donders (1969)—identification, selection, and execution—are responsible for the difference, they argue for a specific role of the detection stage. Specifically, they reason that the detection in (target) change is only necessary for movement initiation and thus constitutes the qualitative difference between the two behaviors. In contrast to this view, I will advocate that change detection is not a qualitatively discriminating feature between the two processes. Instead, the difference in response time might rather stem from different decision criteria (Wolpert & Landy, 2012) set on the detection threshold. This threshold is rather conservative for movement initiation and more relaxed for online adjustments. However, both are states on the same continuum. Thus, movement initiation and online adjustments might even not be qualitatively different at all.

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John D. McCamley, Eric L. Cutler, Kendra K. Schmid, Shane R. Wurdeman, Jason M. Johanning, Iraklis I. Pipinos and Sara A. Myers

understanding of the effects that confounding spatiotemporal measures have on gait in patients with PAD. Changes in statistical significance for a variable after adjusting for a covarying spatiotemporal measure provided insight into the ultimate effect of altered joint torque or power. Methods Subjects All

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Marcos Rodrigo Trindade Pinheiro Menuchi and Lilian Teresa Bucken Gobbi

Locomotion generates a visual movement pattern characterized as optic flow. To explore how the locomotor adjustments are affected by this pattern, an experimental paradigm was developed to eliminate optic flow during obstacle avoidance. The aim was to investigate the contribution of optic flow in obstacle avoidance by using a stroboscopic lamp. Ten young adults walked on an 8m pathway and stepped over obstacles at two heights. Visual sampling was determined by a stroboscopic lamp (static and dynamic visual sampling). Three-dimensional kinematics data showed that the visual information about self-motion provided by the optic flow was crucial for estimating the distance from and the height of the obstacle. Participants presented conservative behavior for obstacle avoidance under experimental visual sampling conditions, which suggests that optic flow favors the coupling of vision to adaptive behavior for obstacle avoidance.

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Richard M. Southall, E. Woodrow Eckard, Mark S. Nagel and Morgan H. Randall

Within the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS) and Division I men’s basketball many profit-athletes travel to Predominately White Institution (PWI) work sites for “pre-professional” sport opportunities. At most PWIs the Black male student population is less than ten percent, while football and men’s basketball rosters are overwhelmingly comprised of Black athletes. This study—using multiple regression models—examines the relationship between athletic success and profit-athletes’ graduation rates. The main dependent variable is the Adjusted Graduation Gap (AGG) as a measure of academic success. Results indicated Black profit-athletes who play for the most successful FBS football and NCAA D-I men’s basketball programs graduate at significantly lower rates than full-time male students. However, at Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) Black football and men’s basketball players graduate at higher rates than full-time male students.