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Sheriece Sadberry and Michael Mobley

Research has shown that African American college students have a difficult time adjusting at predominately White institutions (PWIs) in comparison with historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs) with regard to both general and race-related stressors (Neville, Heppner, Ji, & Thye, 2004; Prillerman, Myers, & Smedley, 1989; Sedlacek, 1999). For college student-athletes, the campus environment can challenge their capacity to ft in and adhere to academic and social expectations, perhaps especially for Black student-athletes (BSA). The current study therefore examined the sociocultural and mental health adjustment of 98 BSA based on their perceived social support, perceived campus racial climate, team cohesion, and life events using latent profle analysis (LPA). Results indicated three distinct profile groups: Low Social Support/Cohesion, High Minority Stress, and High Social Support/Cohesion. Profiles were predictive of adjustment concerns and campus setting (PWIs vs. HBCUs), highlighting within-group differences among BSA. Implications for interventions to facilitate and support healthy adjustment and success for BSA are discussed.

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Anya T. Eicher, James E. Johnson, Phoebe Campbell, and Benjamin J. Downs

challenges during their final year of school. Although most of Thompson’s daily work forces her to focus on underclassmen who are adjusting to college, her emerging priority is to implement a support service that can better equip student-athletes in their transition away from their sport. However, a major

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Sasha M. Kullman, Brittany N. Semenchuk, Benjamin J.I. Schellenberg, Laura Ceccarelli, and Shaelyn M. Strachan

et al., 2004 ; Larson-Meyer, 2002 ). By abandoning their exercise identity after becoming mothers, women risk sacrificing the benefits of exercise engagement. When identities are challenged by life transitions, an adaptive reaction may be for individuals to adjust their identity meanings ( Burke

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Caroline Divert, Heiner Baur, Guillaume Mornieux, Frank Mayer, and Alain Belli

When mechanical parameters of running are measured, runners have to be accustomed to testing conditions. Nevertheless, habituated runners could still show slight evolutions of their patterns at the beginning of each new running bout. This study investigated runners' stiffness adjustments during shoe and barefoot running and stiffness evolutions of shoes. Twenty-two runners performed two 4-minute bouts at 3.61 m·s–1 shod and barefoot after a 4-min warm-up period. Vertical and leg stiffness decreased during the shoe condition but remained stable in the barefoot condition, p < 0.001. Moreover, an impactor test showed that shoe stiffness increased significantly during the first 4 minutes, p < 0.001. Beyond the 4th minute, shoe properties remained stable. Even if runners were accustomed to the testing condition, as running pattern remained stable during barefoot running, they adjusted their leg and vertical stiffness during shoe running. Moreover, as measurements were taken after a 4-min warm-up period, it could be assumed that shoe properties were stable. Then the stiffness adjustment observed during shoe running might be due to further habituations of the runners to the shod condition. To conclude, it makes sense to run at least 4 minutes before taking measurements in order to avoid runners' stiffness alteration due to shoe property modifications. However, runners could still adapt to the shoe.

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Etem Curuk, Yunju Lee, and Alexander S. Aruin

While maintaining vertical posture, the central nervous system (CNS) uses two main types of adjustments in the activity of the leg and trunk muscles when dealing with body perturbations. Anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) control the position of the center of mass of the body by activating

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Konstantinos D. Tambalis, Stamatis Mourtakos, and Labros S. Sidossis

Specifically, several studies 10 , 18 , 20 have presented negative associations between LBW and childhood CRF, whereas others did not find significant associations after adjustment for potential confounders. 16 , 17 , 19 Similarly, studies have evaluated the association between birth weight and muscle

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Gary S. Goldfield, Katherine Henderson, Annick Buchholz, Nicole Obeid, Hien Nguyen, and Martine F. Flament

Objective:

To examine the association between volume and intensity of physical activity (PA) and depressive symptoms, anxiety, and body image in a large sample of adolescents in Ottawa and surrounding region.

Methods:

A total of 1259 (n = 746 girls and n = 513 boys) students responded to surveys on leisure time PA, depressive symptoms, anxiety, and body image.

Results:

A dose response effect of intensity of PA and psychological distress was observed whereby those who performed greater bouts of vigorous PA exhibited better psychological adjustment than adolescents engaging in mild to moderate intensity activity. Gender impacted the results as vigorous PA was associated with reduced depression but not anxiety in boys, and reduced anxiety but not depression in girls. The positive association between total volume of PA and psychological functioning in the overall sample was no longer significant when gender was considered, except for reduced anxiety in girls.

Conclusions:

Vigorous PA was associated with reductions in depressive symptoms, anxiety and improvements in body esteem in adolescents, but these associations were differentially influenced by gender. Future research is needed to elucidate the efficacy of vigorous PA as a treatment for mental health problems in male and female adolescents.

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Renato Claudino, Marcio José dos Santos, and Giovana Zarpellon Mazo

of previous studies involving unpredictable body perturbations and muscular reactive responses (or compensatory adjustments) in the older population has externally perturbed body balance in quiet standing using moving force platforms that usually translate ( Halicka, Lobotkova, Bzduskova, & Hlavacka

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Jason C. Bartram, Dominic Thewlis, David T. Martin, and Kevin I. Norton

′ balance. Although an improvement in mathematical construct, the SK2 model has only been validated in subelite participants, and when used for elite cyclists, has been shown to underpredict the W ′ recovery rate. 7 Using the SK2 mathematical construct, we proposed an adjustment to the recovery time

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John D. McCamley, Eric L. Cutler, Kendra K. Schmid, Shane R. Wurdeman, Jason M. Johanning, Iraklis I. Pipinos, and Sara A. Myers

understanding of the effects that confounding spatiotemporal measures have on gait in patients with PAD. Changes in statistical significance for a variable after adjusting for a covarying spatiotemporal measure provided insight into the ultimate effect of altered joint torque or power. Methods Subjects All