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Erin E. Redihan

the limits of his position, Ford’s administration dealt with four Olympic-related issues: the creation of the President’s Commission on Olympic Sports, funding for the 1980 Lake Placid Winter Games, the revocation of Radio Free Europe’s press credentials in Innsbruck, and the status of the Republic of

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Jared A. Russell, Sheri Brock, and Mary E. Rudisill

, physical conflict), a targeted individual can turn to administration and units on campus such as the office of Title IX, affirmative action, human resources, and/or the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) to address the matter. Consequently, explicit bias is more easily identified and addressed

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Christopher J. Burcal, Sunghoon Chung, Madison L. Johnston, and Adam B. Rosen

Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) are useful tools to assess patient function and monitor rehabilitation progress. The paper versions of PROs can be time-consuming due to manual grading, which may be a barrier to utilizing these outcomes. 1 Digital methods of administration (MOA) have been shown to

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Jacqueline Phillips, Kelly Cheever, Jamie McKeon, and Ryan Tierney

Key Points ▸ NPC administration needs to be standardized to produce clinically-meaningful results. ▸ Using a fingertip to measure NPC produces different results versus an accommodative ruler. ▸ Ruler placements affect NPC scores. Signs and symptoms such as headache, dizziness, and blurred vision

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Cindy N. Nguyen, Reuben N. Clements, Lucas A. Porter, Nicole E. Clements, Matthew D. Gray, Dustin J. Killian, and Russell T. Baker

could be influenced if a learning effect was present with serial administration. Throughout an athlete’s career, concussion assessments may be repeated several times through baseline testing, initial concussion evaluation, and return to activity assessment. 13 , 14 Because reaction time improvement

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Bryan Raudenbush, Nathan Corley, and William Eppich

Previous research has indicated that odorant presentations can have both positive and negative effects on psychological perceptions of athletic task performance. The present study extends past research by assessing how the administration of peppermint odor affects actual athletic task performance. Forty athletes undertook a series of physical tasks under conditions of no-odor or peppermint odor. The peppermint odor condition resulted in increases in running speed, hand grip strength, and number of push-ups, but had no effect on skill related tasks such as basketball free-throw shots. The implications are particularly salient in regard to enhancing athletic performance using a nonpharmacological aid and as an adjunct to athletic training and physical therapy.

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John A.W. Baker, Xiang-Jun Cao, David Wei Pan, and Weili Lin

The effectiveness of the centralized sport system in China has been demonstrated by the achievements of athletes in international competition and the extent of mass sports participation; however, the efficiency of the system has been questioned. A government survey determined that administrators within the system came from diverse backgrounds with little or no training in sport, physical education, or management techniques. This situation is being remedied through workshops for existing administrators and 4-year degree programs for future administrators. This study provides information regarding the different perspectives of sport administration in China, the structure of the workshops and degree programs, and efforts being made to ensure that an already effective system becomes more efficient. All data were obtained from prime source materials and from surveys conducted by one of the authors.

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David A. Stewart, Gail M. Dummer, and John L. Haubenstricker

Administration procedures reported in studies on the motor skills of deaf children and youth are reviewed. There was general consensus among these studies that modification of administration procedures is necessary. However, the effect of instructional modifications on the validity and reliability of motor skill tests was never addressed. Furthermore, there is a range of communication systems used in the education of the deaf that complicates administration procedures. Implications for future studies include a call for researchers to become more aware of the communication needs of their deaf subjects and a willingness to use experts familiar with the linguistic and communication needs of a particular group of deaf subjects to help design and administer motor skill tests.

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John C. Barnes

It is important for sports administration programs to prepare students for career entry and transition into productive roles within their new jobs upon graduation. However, even the best academic curricula for those entering a profession may be inadequate for preparing students for early success in their careers. Not only do academic curricula lack the ability to train students for problem solving and independent thinking, they lack the ability to provide context, reducing transfer of knowledge to practice. The purpose of this article is to provide instructors in sports administration programs background information related to the transition graduates may face when entering the job market. The underlying assumption is that if instructors better understand the process of job entry and transition, they can better prepare students to embark on their careers. Included are discussions of professional preparation programs, the expectation gap held by new employees, job role transition, and organizational socialization.

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David Cruise Malloy and Dwight H. Zakus

The primary purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the theoretical underpinnings of ethical decision making for the sport administrator. A secondary purpose is to argue for changes to the pedagogical nature and process in sport administration programs so that students have the ability to make decisions with a critically conscious praxis. Four philosophical approaches to ethics and two psychological approaches to moral reasoning are briefly discussed. A synthesis of philosophical and psychological approaches is suggested as a means to understand, in a comprehensive manner, the ethical decision-making behavior of the sport administrator within what may well be a contradiction-based sport organization. Finally, some comments are made on ways that this synthesized approach might be used in a critical active pedagogy in sport administration programs.