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Con Burns, John J. Murphy and Ciaran MacDonncha

Background:

Knowledge of the physical activity correlate profile of adolescent females will provide insight into decreasing physical activity patterns among adolescent females.

Methods:

Correlates of physical activity and physical activity stage of change were assessed during 2007–2008 among 871 Irish adolescent females in years 1–6 in secondary schools (15.28 ± 1.8 years). Multivariate Analysis of Variance was used to identify whether differences in correlates of physical activity could be detected across year in school and physical activity stages of change.

Results:

Significant differences (P < .01) were found in 11 of the 16 measured correlates across year in school and in 14 of the 16 correlates across stage of change. Effect size estimates and regression analysis revealed perceived competence, peer social support and intention to be physically active (partial eta range (ηp 2) .21–.25) to be the most important predictors of physical activity stage of change.

Conclusions:

Females in more senior years in school and in earlier physical activity stages of change reported a significantly less positive physical activity correlate profile than females in junior years and in later physical activity stages of change. This finding supports the construct validity of the physical activity stages of change.

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Timothy J. Bungum and Murray Vincent

Purposes of this study included the identification of physical activity (PA) levels, and the types of activity, as well as the determination of racial differences in these factors between African-American (AA) (n=626) and White (WH) (n=226) adolescent females.

PA was measured using a one week recall. Approximately 1/2 of WH and 1/3 of AA female adolescents were sufficiently physically active (Blair, 1992) to produce health benefits. Less than twenty-five percent of study participants met a newly established guideline addressing moderate to vigorous PA (Sallis & Patrick, 1994). Younger adolescents were more active than older adolescents.

Accounting for differences in age and socioeconomic status WH females were more active than AA females. African-American and WH females participated in similar types of activity. Walking was the most frequently cited mode of activity.

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Michele Lastella, Gregory D. Roach, Grace E. Vincent, Aaron T. Scanlan, Shona L. Halson and Charli Sargent

present study were to (1) quantify the sleep/wake behaviors of elite, adolescent, female basketball players and (2) examine the impact of training load on sleep/wake behaviors, during a 14-day training camp. Methods Subjects Elite, adolescent, female basketball players (N = 11; mean (SD): age 17.3 [0.9] y

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Abby L. Cheng, John A. Merlo, Devyani Hunt, Ted Yemm, Robert H. Brophy and Heidi Prather

understanding of injury risk factors and predictors is needed. Unfortunately, the vast majority of epidemiological studies performed on elite soccer athletes do not include the adolescent female population. 3 – 5 Adolescent females have unique risk factors, such as a rapid rate of skeletal growth that outpaces

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Susan M. Moen, Charlotte F. Sanborn and Nancy DiMarco

The present study was conducted to compare dietary intakes and percentage of body fat between adolescent female runners and sedentary adolescent females. Thirty white girls, aged 15-18 years, served as subjects. Twenty had run between 20 and 55 miles per week for the past 1-5 years. The ten controls had not exercised for at least the past year other than in physical education classes. Nutrient intake was analyzed from 3-day dietary records. Percentage of body fat was estimated using hydrostatic weighing and skinfold thicknesses measured at the right triceps and calf. No significant differences were found between the 20 runners and the 10 controls in intakes of energy, calcium, or iron. Although daily caloric intakes were not higher for the runners, the two groups differed in percentage of body fat; the mean value for the runners was significantly lower than the control group’s value. Both groups consumed greater than recommended percentages of fat and less than recommended percentages of carbohydrates. In addition, both calcium and iron consumptions were below recommended values. In summary, the female runners had typically poor American teenage diets. Overall, these athletes should be instructed to increase their total kilocalories, consume a greater percentage of carbohydrates, and select foods high in calcium and iron.

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James A. Padfield, Patricia A. Eisenman, Maurie J. Luetkemeier and Sally S. Fitt

A physiological profile of 40 early adolescent female dancers was completed to investigate the characteristics of dancers this age and the possible physical fitness benefits of high levels of dance training. Of those physical fitness variables studied, the only significant difference between performing (high level) and recreational (low level) dancers was the degree of hip flexibility (p<.01). Both groups exhibited lean body density (combined mean of 1.069 g ml−1) as well as moderate aerobic (combined mean of 45.8 ml kg−1 min−1) and anaerobic power (combined mean of 6.5 Watt kg−1). These data suggest that early adolescent dance training encourages a certain level of physical fitness, but higher levels or duration of dance training do not result in or demand exceptional aerobic or anaerobic power.

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Genevieve Fridlund Dunton, Margaret Schneider, Dan J. Graham and Dan M. Cooper

Cross-sectional research examined whether physical activity or physical fitness was more closely linked to physical self-concept in adolescent females ages 14 to 17 (N = 103, 63% Caucasian). Moderate physical activity and vigorous physical activity were measured through a 3-day physical activity recall. Physical fitness was assessed using highly accurate measures of peak oxygen consumption (via cycle ergometer) and percent body fat (via dual X-ray absorptiometer). The Physical Self-Description Questionnaire (PSDQ) assessed self-concept in 11 domains (e.g., health, endurance, appearance). Pearson’s correlations showed that vigorous physical activity was positively associated with scores on most of the PSDQ scales (p < .005). Peak oxygen consumption was positively related to all of the selfconcept domains (p < .001), and percent body fat was negatively related on most of the PSDQ scales (p < .005). Multiple-regression analyses found that physical fitness (i.e., peak oxygen consumption and percent body fat) was more closely related to physical self-concept than was physical activity. In addition to the possibility that genetically determined fitness levels may influence physical selfconcept, these findings suggest that programs designed to elevate self-perceptions may require physical activity levels sufficient to improve cardiovascular fitness and decrease body fat.

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Jodie Andruschko, Anthony D. Okely and Phil Pearson

cardiorespiratory fitness and physical activity among adolescent females. Although motor skills are related to physical activity in adolescent females ( Okely, Booth, & Patterson, 2001 ), developing fundamental movement skills has not been tested as a strategy for promoting physical activity in this population

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Eyad Alshammari, Shahida Shafi, Jaana Nurmi-Lawton, Andrew Taylor, Susan Lanham-New and Gordon Ferns

Physical activity is associated with the generation of reactive oxygen species and may lead to decreased levels of plasma antioxidants and increased oxidant stress. Some studies have reported that antioxidant supplements can reduce the consequences of oxidative stress during exercise. In this study the authors aimed to assess the chronic effects of exercise on endogenous serum antioxidant enzyme concentrations. Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were measured in adolescent girls who were either competitive gymnasts or sedentary controls. The relationship between age, body-mass index, dietary intake, trace-element status, and serum GPx and SOD was determined. The participants in the study were part of a 3-yr longitudinal investigation of exercise and peak bone-mass development in 38 competitive gymnasts and 40 healthy sedentary adolescent females 8–17 yr of age. Serum GPx and SOD were measured using colorimetric assays, and trace elements were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The mean serum GPx concentrations were significantly higher in the gymnasts than in the sedentary females (157 ± 11.1 vs. 126 ± 8.8 U/ml, p < .05). In contrast, serum SOD concentrations were significantly lower in the gymnasts than in the sedentary group (7.24 ± 2.6 vs. 8.57 ± 2.3 U/ml, p < .05). Serum selenium, zinc, and copper were higher in the physically active group than in the inactive group (0.89 ± 0.03, 10.86 ± 0.39, 14.50 ± 0.50 vs. 0.81 ± 0.03, 10.32 ± 0.28, and 14.38 ± 0.42 μmol/L, respectively), although only serum selenium reached statistical significance (p < .05). The findings show that young female gymnasts have an altered antioxidant enzyme profile compared with their less physically active peers.

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Jennifer Dekker, Katlynne Nelson, Nigel Kurgan, Bareket Falk, Andrea Josse and Panagiota Klentrou

postexercise in both groups. The response of these osteokines to exercise can provide important information of the cellular mechanisms involved in the osteogenic role of exercise in child and adolescent females. Our findings revealed that the premenarcheal girls had significantly higher resting concentrations