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Mark Lemstra, Marla Rogers, Adam Thompson, and John Moraros

Background:

Youth in Canada age 5−17 years require a minimum of 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity (PA) everyday. Regrettably, there are no published studies on levels of PA within on-reserve First Nations youth in Canada that use validated surveys. The objective was to determine what percentage of Saskatoon Tribal Council (STC) First Nations on-reserve youth met the Canadian Society for Exercise and Physiology’s (CSEP) definition for being physically active, and what influences are associated with meeting this standard.

Methods:

Students in grades 5−8 within the STC were asked to complete a youth health survey.

Results:

Only 7.4% of STC youth met CSEP’s PA standard. Male youth (13.9%) were more likely to meet the PA standard than female youth (4.1%). Having parents who watch youth participate and who provide transportation to classes, having enough equipment at home, having friends bike or walk to school, participating in physical activity headed by a coach or instructor, and participating in structured classes are associated with meeting the standard.

Conclusions:

The prevalence of meeting the PA standard among on-reserve First Nations youth is very low. More research is needed to identify independent risk indicators of being physically inactive.

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Eric M. Martin, Martha E. Ewing, and Daniel Gould

Significant social agents are thought to play a vital role in youth development (Brustad, Babkes, & Smith, 2001). The United States Anti-Doping Agency (USADA) commissioned a nationwide survey to examine the effect significant social agents had on youth sport behavior. In Phase I, initial data were collected and results were published in the Journal of Coaching Education (2011). The results of the previous analyses were largely descriptive, and further analyses were desired. Therefore, the current study (Phase II) is a secondary but more in-depth data analysis of the initial data collected by the USADA. Phase II analyses (n = 3379, Mage = 12.23, SD = 2.78) revealed that youth sport coaches have the greatest positive influence on youth followed closely by parents, but all of the significant social agents, to different extents, were seen as more positive than negative by youth. Results varied by developmental level, gender, and competitive level. Results, limitations, and practical implications are discussed.

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Dylan O. Blain, Thomas Curran, and Martyn Standage

Purpose: Physical literacy is understood to be important for adolescents’ behavioral and psychological wellness. Yet, to date, limited empirical data exist to support such reasoning. Addressing this gap, the present study examined relationships between physical literacy and early adolescents’ physical education engagement, leisure-time exercise behavior, and psychological well-being. Methods: The physical literacy level of 187 early adolescents (M age = 12.84, SD = 0.55, girls = 99) was measured using the Canadian Assessment for Physical Literacy. One week later, data pertaining to standardized measures of engagement in physical education, leisure-time exercise behavior, and psychological well-being were collected. Results: Structural equation modeling revealed that physical literacy was positively correlated with physical education engagement, leisure-time exercise, positive affect, and vitality, whereas it was negatively correlated with negative affect. Conclusion: The findings from this work substantiate the contention that physical literacy has manifold benefits for early adolescents’ behavioral and psychological wellness.

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Aristides M. Machado Rodrigues, Manuel J. Coelho e Silva, Jorge Mota, Sean P. Cumming, Lauren B. Sherar, Helen Neville, and Robert M. Malina

Sex differences in physical activity (PA) through pubertal maturation and the growth spurt are often attributed to changing interests. The contribution of sex differences in biological maturation to the adolescent decline has received limited attention. This study examined the contribution of somatic maturation to sex differences in objective assessments of sedentary behavior and PA in Portuguese adolescents (N = 302, aged 13–16 years). Maturation was estimated from the percentage of predicted mature stature and physically active and inactive behaviors assessed with Actigraph GT1M accelerometers. The influence of age, sex and their interaction on body size, maturation and physical behaviors were examined using factorial ANOVA and, subsequently, ANCOVA (controlling for maturation) tested the effect of sex. Males spent more time in MVPA and less time in sedentary behavior than females. However, sex differences were attenuated when maturation was controlled; thus suggesting that maturity may play an important role in adolescent behaviors.

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Jennifer L. Gay, Eva V. Monsma, Alan L. Smith, J.D. DeFreese, and Toni Torres-McGehee

Growth and maturation may impact adolescent behavior and development of psychological disorders. Currently age at menarche is used as the primary marker of maturation, even though it occurs later than other indicators of growth such as peak height velocity (PHV). Maturity offset predicting age at PHV has not been validated in diverse samples. Anthropometric measures and self-reported age at menarche were obtained for 212 female athletes ages 11 to 16 years (M = 13.25). Shared variance between menarcheal age and estimated age at PHV (APHV) was small (R 2 = 5.3%). Discriminant validity was established by classifying participants as pre- or post-PHV or menarche (X2 = 32.62, P < .0001). The Pearson’s correlation between chronological age and age at PHV (r = .69) was stronger than with age at menarche (r = .26). Making informed decisions about accounting for growth and maturation using estimated age at PHV are offered.

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Melinda Jane Craike, Remco Polman, Rochelle Eime, Caroline Symons, Jack Harvey, and Warren Payne

Background:

This study investigated the association between the different types of behavior regulation and competence on sport and physical activity (PA) and perceived health, and the influence of school year level (ie, year 7 and year 11) and setting (ie, metropolitan and rural) on these relationships.

Methods:

A cross sectional self-complete survey was conducted. Competence was measured using the 5-item perceived competence subscale of the 21-item Athletic Identity Questionnaire (AIQ); behavior regulation was measured using a modified version of the Behavior Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire (BREQ-2); PA was measured using an item to assess if adolescents are meeting recommended levels of PA; and perceived health was measured using the Short Form 1 (SF-1).

Results:

This study included 732 participants, 71.2% from metropolitan schools, and 66.8% in year 7. Self-determined behavior regulation and competence were positively associated with PA and health. Intrinsic motivation was more strongly related to older adolescents’ PA than it was for younger adolescents. Behavior regulators and competence were more strongly associated with health than PA.

Conclusions:

The findings of this study suggest that strategies that enhance intrinsic motivation and PA competence may improve the health of adolescent females; enhancing these may lead to greater health regardless of level of PA.

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Bernardino J. Sánchez-Alcaraz, Alberto Gómez-Mármol, Alfonso Valero-Valenzuela, and Javier Courel-Ibáñez

adolescentsbehaviors ( Balderson & Sharpe, 2005 ; Escartí et al., 2006 ; Jung & Wright, 2012 ; Pozo et al., 2018 ; Ward, Parker, Henschel-Pellett, & Pérez, 2012 ; Wright & Burton, 2008 ), there is uncertainty about the changes that are provoked and how they alter the learning environment. In this sense

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Robert J. Brychta, Vaka Rögnvaldsdóttir, Sigríður L. Guðmundsdóttir, Rúna Stefánsdóttir, Soffia M. Hrafnkelsdóttir, Sunna Gestsdóttir, Sigurbjörn A. Arngrímsson, Kong Y. Chen, and Erlingur Jóhannsson

. PubMed ID: 21227912 doi:10.1093/jpepsy/jsq119 10.1093/jpepsy/jsq119 Marco , C.A. , Wolfson , A.R. , Sparling , M. , & Azuaje , A. ( 2011 ). Family socioeconomic status and sleep patterns of young adolescents . Behavioral Sleep Medicine, 10 ( 1 ), 70 – 80 . PubMed ID: 22250780 doi:10

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Tyler Prochnow, Haley Delgado, Megan S. Patterson, and M. Renée Umstattd Meyer

, 52 This was unsurprising because according to the literature, network composition (or a social norm within someone’s network) has long been associated with child and adolescent behavior. 56 , 57 For example, studies suggest a composition effect on adolescents’ smoking and drinking behaviors

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Yara Fidelix, Mara C. Lofrano-Prado, Leonardo S. Fortes, James O. Hill, Ann E. Caldwell, João P. Botero, and Wagner L. do Prado

, Wing RR . Two-year follow-up of an adolescent behavioral weight control intervention . Pediatrics . 2012 ; 130 ( 2 ): e281 – e288 . PubMed ID: 22753560 doi:10.1542/peds.2011-3283 12. Meyer JD , Koltyn KF , Stegner AJ , Kim JS , Cook DB . Influence of exercise intensity for improving