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Ethan Edward Hull, Dana L. Rofey, Robert J. Robertson, Elizabeth F. Nagle, Amy D. Otto and Deborah J. Aaron

Background:

Physical activity (PA) tends to decrease from adolescence to young adulthood, and factors that have been proposed to contribute to this decrease are life transitions. The focus of this study is to examine life transitions, such as marriage and parenthood, and the impact they may have on the physical activity levels of young adults.

Methods:

This 2-year prospective analysis assessed physical activity (hrs/wk) and sociodemo-graphics in young adults (n = 638, 48% male, 15% nonwhite, 24 ± 1.1 years old) via questionnaire. PA data were normalized through log transformations and examined using ANCOVAs, controlling for appropriate covariates.

Results:

ANCOVA results showed that becoming married did not significantly change PA compared with individuals who stayed single [F(1,338) = 0.38, P = .54, d = 0.06]. Conversely, PA was significantly lower [F(1,517) = 6.7, P = .01, d = 0.41] after having a child, compared with individuals who stayed childless.

Conclusions:

These results suggest that marriage does not impact PA in young adults, but having a child significantly decreases PA in parents, and may offer an optimal period of intervention.

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James J. McClain, Teresa L. Hart, Renee S. Getz and Catrine Tudor-Locke

Background:

This study evaluated the utility of several lower cost physical activity (PA) assessment instruments for detecting PA volume (steps) and intensity (time in MVPA or activity time) using convergent methods of assessment.

Methods:

Participants included 26 adults (9 male) age 27.3 ± 7.1 years with a BMI of 23.8 ± 2.8 kg/m2. Instruments evaluated included the Omron HJ-151 (OM), New Lifestyles NL-1000 (NL), Walk4Life W4L Pro (W4L), and ActiGraph GT1M (AG). Participants wore all instruments during a laboratory phase, consisting of 10 single minute treadmill walking bouts ranging in speed from 40 to 112 m/min, and immediate following the laboratory phase and during the remainder of their free-living day (11.3 ± 1.5 hours). Previously validated AG MVPA cutpoints were used for comparison with OM, NL, and W4L MVPA or activity time outputs during the laboratory and free-living phase.

Results:

OM and NL produced similar MVPA estimates during free-living to commonly used AG walking cutpoints, and W4L activity time estimates were similar to one AG lifestyle cutpoint evaluated.

Conclusion:

Current findings indicate that the OM, NL, and W4L, ranging in price from $15 to $49, can provide reasonable estimates of free-living MVPA or activity time in comparison with a range of AG walking and lifestyle cutpoints.

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Rafael F. Escamilla, Glenn S. Fleisig, Coop DeRenne, Marcus K. Taylor, Claude T. Moorman III, Rodney Imamura, Edward Barakatt and James R. Andrews

We propose that learning proper hitting kinematics should be encouraged at a young age during youth baseball because this may help reinforce proper hitting kinematics as a player progresses to higher levels of baseball in their adult years. To enhance our understanding between youth and adult baseball hitting, kinematic and temporal analyses of baseball hitting were evaluated with a high-speed motion analysis system between 12 skilled youth and 12 skilled adult baseball players. There were only a small number of temporal differences between youth and adult hitters, with adult hitters taking significantly greater time than youth hitters during the stride phase and during the swing. Compared with youth hitters, adult hitters a) had significantly greater (p < .01) lead knee flexion when the hands started to move forward; b) flexed the lead knee over a greater range of motion during the transition phase (31° versus 13°); c) extended the lead knee over a greater range of motion during the bat acceleration phase (59° versus 32°); d) maintained a more open pelvis position at lead foot off ground; and e) maintained a more open upper torso position when the hands started to move forward and a more closed upper torso position at bat-ball contact. Moreover, adult hitters had greater peak upper torso angular velocity (857°/s versus 717°/s), peak left elbow extension angular velocity (752°/s versus 598°/s), peak left knee extension angular velocity (386°/s versus 303°/s), and bat linear velocity at bat-ball contact (30 m/s versus 25 m/s). The numerous differences in kinematic and temporal parameters between youth and adult hitters suggest that hitting mechanics are different between these two groups.

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Alain P. Gauthier, Michel Lariviere, Raymond Pong, Susan Snelling and Nancy Young

Background:

Researchers have recently expressed their concern for the health of Francophones and rural dwellers in Canada. Their levels of physical activity may explain part of the observed differences. However, little is known about the physical activity levels of these 2 groups. The purpose of this study was to assess levels of physical activity among a sample of Francophones and rural dwellers. The study also assessed the associations of various types of physical activity to measures of health status.

Methods:

A quota-based convenience sample of 256 adults from Northern Ontario was surveyed using the IPAQ and the SF-12.

Results:

There were no significant differences in activity levels between language groups (P = .06) or geographical groups (P = .22) on the combined dependent variables based on MANOVA. Leisure-time physical activity scores were consistently associated to better physical component summary scores of the SF-12.

Conclusions:

Implications for practice include that leisure-time physical activities have been at the forefront of public health promotion, and our findings support this approach. Further, population specific interventions are indeed important, however, within this Canadian context when identifying target groups one must look beyond sociocultural status or geographical location.

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Dalia Mickeviciene, Renata Rutkauskaite, Dovile Valanciene, Diana Karanauskiene, Marius Brazaitis and Albertas Skurvydas

adaptation involves two memory processes: (a) a fast process whereby motor output both adapts and decays quickly and (b) a slow process whereby it adapts and decays more gradually ( Smith, Ghazizadeh, & Shadmehr, 2006 ; Ungerleider, Doyon, & Karni, 2002 ). Older adults usually exhibit impairments in

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Claire R. Jenkin, Rochelle M. Eime, Hans Westerbeek and Jannique G.Z. van Uffelen

Worldwide populations are aging ( World Health Organization, 2015 ) and it often correlates with a decline in health. Being physically active is important for good health. Therefore, it is prudent to support older adults (referring to people aged 50 years and older) to continue being physically

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Wen-Hao Hsu, Evelyn J. Park, Daniel L. Miranda, Hani M. Sallum, Conor J. Walsh and Eugene C. Goldfield

Children taking their first steps are usually assisted by an adult providing postural support. Such support may typically be thought of as keeping the child from falling. However, the opportunity for the child to actively explore the forces acting on the body during standing body sway may be an

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Steve Amireault, John M. Baier and Jonathan R. Spencer

adding quality to older adults’ extended lives. However, age tends to be negatively associated with physical activity participation ( Bauman et al., 2012 ), and the current cohort of adults aged 65 years and older are the least physically active of any age group ( Sparling, Howard, Dunstan, & Owen, 2015

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Rachael C. Stone, Zina Rakhamilova, William H. Gage and Joseph Baker

Older adults are the largest and fastest growing segment of the population, causing worldwide shifts in social, political, economic, and medical infrastructures ( Statistics Canada, 2013 ). Given these trends and subsequent concerns related to sustaining such infrastructures, research has begun to

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Hayley Guiney, Michael Keall and Liana Machado

older adults’ mental, cognitive, and physical health are well-established (reviewed in Bauman, Merom, Bull, Buchner, & Fiatarone Singh, 2016 ). According to current evidence-based guidelines from the World Health Organization ( 2016 ) and US Department of Health and Human Services ( 2008 ), older