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Jen D. Wong, Julie S. Son, Stephanie T. West, Jill J. Naar and Toni Liechty

It has been widely documented that physical activities can help improve cardiovascular health, reduce muscle mass loss, and enhance feelings of social connectedness to others in late adulthood (e.g.,  Manin & Pahor, 2009 ; Robin, Hill, Finch, Clemson, & Haines, 2018 ; Soares-Miranda, Siscovick

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Vera K. Tsenkova, Chioun Lee and Jennifer Morozink Boylan

health benefits. 10 Further, rates of physical activity are patterned by SES: Both childhood disadvantage and contemporaneous SES predict less frequent physical activity in adulthood. 25 – 27 Importantly, opportunities to engage in physical activity for leisure or work differ as a function of SES, and

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Elin Ekblom-Bak, Örjan Ekblom, Gunnar Andersson, Peter Wallin and Björn Ekblom

youth, as well as tracking into adulthood and effects on lifestyle, activity habits, and health later in life, are highly relevant. Previous tracking studies have reported, in general, low to moderate correlation between childhood and adult PA and fitness, with some equivocal results between different

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Jonathan Miller, Mark Pereira, Julian Wolfson, Melissa Laska, Toben Nelson and Dianne Neumark-Sztainer

. Therefore, the current analysis aimed to examine the following questions: (1) What are the trends of MVPA from adolescence to young adulthood? (2) Do the trends of MVPA differ by ethnicity/race and sex? and (3) Do longitudinal determinants of MVPA differ between these groups? For example: Does a relatively

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Marta C. Erlandson, Shonah B. Runalls, Stefan A. Jackowski, Robert A. Faulkner and Adam D.G. Baxter-Jones

lack of research investigating the maintenance of bone strength measures after the loading stimulus (gymnastics participation) has been removed. Only if these benefits are maintained after retirement from the sport into adulthood, can childhood participation in gymnastics be purported to decrease

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Kristen M. Metcalf, Elena M. Letuchy, Steven M. Levy and Kathleen F. Janz

and adulthood may also be important as accrual of bone is not complete until early adulthood ( 9 ). In addition, much of the epidemiological work completed on bone health is cross sectional. Few studies have longitudinally examined the association of PA and bone especially throughout the entire period

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Cathleen D. Zick, Ken R. Smith, Barbara B. Brown, Jessie X. Fan and Lori Kowaleski-Jones

Background:

We examine how age, life course roles, and contextual variables relate to both the composition and the overall level of physical activity in late adolescence and early adulthood.

Methods:

Data on respondents age 15 to 29 y in the 2003 American Time Use Survey are used to estimate multivariate logistic regressions that assess what factors are associated with meeting the recommended level of physical activity.

Results:

The proportion of respondents who do 30 min or more of team sports declines over the 15 to 29 y age range even after controlling for life course and contextual covariates. Parenthood, employment status, and school enrollment have selective effects on the odds of meeting physical activity recommendations.

Conclusions:

Given the declines in team sports activities, schools and public health officials should consider the potential benefits of promoting other options such as cardiovascular activities, strength training activities, and/or active transportation.

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Emma L. J. Eyre, Jason Tallis, Susie Wilson, Lee Wilde, Liam Akhurst, Rildo Wanderleys and Michael J. Duncan

adults are a group of interest as sharp declines in physical activity patterns and increasing sedentary patterns are seen globally from the transition from adolescence into adulthood ( Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, 2010 ; McVeigh et al., 2016 ; Telama et al., 2014 ). Additionally

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Laura Kestilä, Tomi Mäki-Opas, Anton E Kunst, Katja Borodulin, Ossi Rahkonen and Ritva Prättälä

Background:

Limited knowledge exists on how childhood social, health-related and economic circumstances predict adult physical inactivity. Our aim was a) to examine how various childhood adversities and living conditions predict leisure-time physical inactivity in early adulthood and b) to find out whether these associations are mediated through the respondent’s own education.

Methods:

Young adults aged 18−29 were used from the Health 2000 Study of the Finnish. The cross-sectional data were based on interviews and questionnaires including retrospective information on childhood circumstances. The analyses were carried out on 68% of the original sample (N = 1894). The outcome measure was leisure-time physical inactivity.

Results:

Only a few of the 11 childhood adversities were related with physical activity in early adulthood. Having been bullied at school was associated with physical inactivity independently of the other childhood circumstances and the respondent’s own education. Low parental education predicted leisure-time physical inactivity in men and the association was mediated by the respondent´s own education. Respondents with only primary or vocational education were more likely to be physically inactive during leisure-time compared with those with secondary or higher education.

Conclusions:

There is some evidence that few specific childhood adversities, especially bullying at school, have long-lasting effects on physical activity levels.

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Priscila M. Nakamura, Grégore I. Mielke, Bernardo L. Horta, Maria Cecília Assunção, Helen Gonçalves, Ana M.B. Menezes, Fernando C. Barros, Ulf Ekelund, Soren Brage, Fernando C. Wehrmeister, Isabel O. Oliveira and Pedro C. Hallal

Background:

Physical inactivity is responsible for 7% of diabetes deaths worldwide, but little is known whether low levels of physical activity (PA) during adolescence increase the risk of diabetes in early adulthood. We evaluated the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between PA throughout adolescence and HbA1c concentration in early adulthood.

Methods:

HbA1c was measured by high performance liquid chromatography. PA was assessed by self-report at the ages of 11, 15, and 18 years and by accelerometry at the ages of 13 (subsample) and 18 years. The loss percentages of follow up were 12.5% at 11 years, 14.4% at 15 years, and 18.7% at 18 years.

Results:

At 18 years, boys showed higher HbA1c than girls. At age 18 years, accelerometrybased PA at 18 years was inversely related to HbA1c levels in boys. Self-reported leisure-time PA at ages 11, 15, and 18 were unrelated to HbA1c in both genders. PA at 13 years of age was unrelated to HbA1c among both genders. In trajectory analysis, PA and accelerometer PA trajectories were not associated with later HbA1c.

Conclusions:

Objectively measured PA at 18 years was cross-sectionally inversely associated with HbA1c in boys only. No prospective associations were identified.