globally from in-game advertising (IGA) is expected to reach nearly $7 billion by 2019, an increase of more than $5 billion since 2009 ( Statista, 2016 ). Current research on IGA has been encouraging yet not exhaustive. Scholars have explored effects of IGA on memory (recall and recognition), attitude
Yongjin Hwang, Khalid Ballouli, Kevin So and Bob Heere
Beth A. Cianfrone, Jessica R. Braunstein-Minkove and Alyssa L. Tavormina
deep discount (e.g., 40% or more off regular price). In addition to the deal itself, the advertising e-mail often provides the consumer with organizational information, the level of the discount, the process through which the transaction will take place (i.e., through the daily-deal organization), and
Monique Potvin Kent and Clive Velkers
While watching television, children are exposed to a significant number of food and beverage advertisements of poor nutritional quality. 13 , 14 This type of advertising has been associated with children’s food and beverage preferences and eating habits; their requests for high-calorie, low
Do Young Pyun and Jeffrey D. James
A challenge with advertising communications is to better understand beliefs driving people’s attitude toward advertising. Successful use of sport communication requires a better understanding of the beliefs composing attitudes toward advertising through sport. A 4-phase study was conducted to develop a scale measuring 7 belief dimensions as indicants of attitude toward advertising through sport. Phase 1 (N = 125) provided an initial test of the proposed instrument. Phase 2 (N = 215) included an assessment of the revised scale based on internal-consistency tests and exploratory factor analysis. In Phase 3 (N = 424) the scale’s reliability and validity were verified using confirmatory factor analysis. In Phase 4 (N = 263) the internal consistency and factor structure of the scale were reexamined. The combined results provide support for the conceptualization and measurement of the belief dimensions for future investigation of the relationships between beliefs about and attitude toward advertising through sport.
Shintaro Sato, Yong Jae Ko, Kyriaki (Kiki) Kaplanidou and Daniel P. Connaughton
The purpose of this study was to examine consumers’ comparative judgment of athlete endorsers in back-toback advertisement settings. Drawing on the inclusion/exclusion model (Schwarz & Bless, 2007), the authors argue that (a) a recently observed athlete endorser impacts consumer judgment of subsequently presented endorsers, and (b) the valence of the impact depends on brand category membership of the consecutively presented endorsers. A 2 (representative endorser activation: present vs. absent) × 2 (brand category membership: membership vs. nonmembership) between-subjects design was administered across three experiments. Results demonstrated that the presence of a representative endorser increased a subsequently presented endorser’s perceived expertise when that subsequent endorser represented the same brand category. Results also demonstrated that the presence of a representative endorser decreased a subsequently presented endorser’s perceived expertise when that subsequent endorser did not represent the same brand category. Overall, these findings support both assimilation and contrast effects. The authors argue how this outcome can assist advertising managers to strategically position appropriate endorsers in marketing platforms.
Jacquelyn Cuneen and Cathryn L. Claussen
Research addressing women’s portrayals in sport-products advertising has focused on typical mass media, largely ignoring point-of-purchase advertising. Yet, point-of-purchase ads have the potential to be more powerfully reinforced which adds urgency to the need to examine such messages. The purpose of this study was to describe gender characteristics in, and consumers’ reactions to, sports product point-of-purchase ads (f=161) at 24 stores in nine geographic regions and to assess consumers’ (N=351) feelings of involvement in the ads. Based upon the results both female and male consumers perceived the ads with various levels of relevance and meaning and each gender preferred ads that related directly to themselves and their needs. Such results have direct implications for manufacturers/marketers of sports-related products because (a) women shopped for, and purchased, sports-related products more frequently than men, and (b) consumers noticed and were able to identify/recall activities featured in sports-related advertising. Therefore, manufacturers’ wishing to amass and maintain the women’s market need to target women directly and feature women performing meaningful activities in their advertising.
Sarah Kelly and Michael Ireland
obtains the right to associate itself with the event ( Becker-Olsen & Simmons, 2002 ; Cornwell, Weeks, & Roy, 2005 ). Hence, sponsorship requires a contractual relationship that secures rights in addition to leveraging those rights through relevant activations, mainly through advertising. As a
Sarah Kelly, Len Coote, T. Bettina Cornwell and Anna McAlister
This research provides insight into the complex relationship between consumer response to persuasion attempts and skepticism, suggesting that erstwhile targets may be swayed by campaigns pitched as a form of entertainment. The authors examine consumer responses to an important sponsorship-leveraging tool: sponsorship-linked advertising (SLA). A theoretical model of consumer response to SLA is proposed, drawing on important resistance mechanisms to persuasion, including ad skepticism, attributed advertiser motives, and the nature of thoughts. Results confirm existing research on consumer skepticism suggesting its transitory nature and hence potential for advertisers to strategically temper it through specific cues in ad execution. Differential processing between SLA and traditional advertising is supported, such that SLA elicits more favorable cognitive response.
Michael R. Real and Robert A. Mechikoff
The relationship between the media sports fan and the sporting event closely parallels the position of the ritual participant acting out a mythic celebration. Such identification between the viewer/participant and the event has been characterized as “deep play” by Geertz (1973). However, this fan experience in the modem era is shaped not just by human face-to-face interaction, as was Geertz’s famous Balinese cockfight; instead, a specific media technology and commercial advertising provide the structure through which the public accesses media sports. This study examines grounded data on audience size and composition, advertising, commercial infrastructure and incentives, and other institutional aspects of the political economy of mass-mediated sport. What do cultural and ritual theory contribute to our understanding of the mass-mediated sports experience of today’s “deep fan”?
Yosuke Tsuji, Gregg Bennett and James H. Leigh
The purpose of this study was to investigate factors affecting brand awareness of virtual advertising in sports. Specifically, the study tested the effects of animation, repetition, baseball involvement, and team identification. An experiment using two Latin square designs was conducted to assess the effects of these factors on awareness levels. Results indicated no effect of animation, while effects of repetition, baseball involvement, and team identification were found to affect viewers’ cognitive responses. Managerial implications, limitations, and future research are discussed.