This paper deals with the measurement of aerobic and anaerobic power in children, and how these capacities are affected by growth and training. The type of tests available, the selection of ergometer, establishment of criteria for determining whether a maximal value has been attained, and the limitations of the various expressions of maximal values are discussed. Aerobic capacity, when expressed in liters per minute, has been observed to increase with growth; when expressed relative to body weight, aerobic capacity has been shown to remain the same or decrease with age. Anaerobic capacity increases with age no matter how the values are expressed. Limited evidence suggests that training during prepubescence does not increase aerobic capacity beyond that expected from growth. Several methodological limitations of longitudinal studies are examined.
Linda D. Zwiren
Vicky L. Goosey-Tolfrey, Sonja de Groot, Keith Tolfrey, and Tom A.W. Paulson
-established protocols for anaerobic 10 and aerobic 8 , 11 wheelchair testing during standardized conditions, on-court sport-specific testing still remains the coach’s preferred method. 5 , 12 Yet, the validity of continuous tests of aerobic capacity adapted from able-bodied field-based protocols remains inconclusive
Lucimere Bohn, Duarte Barros, Flávia Borges-Machado, Susana Carrapatoso, Andreia N. Pizarro, and Joana Carvalho
postconfinement ( p < .001). In addition, between genders, differences were noticed for aerobic capacity in the postconfinement moment ( p < .05; Table 1 ). Table 1 Pre- and Postconfinement Data on Body Composition and Physical Fitness for Total Samples and According to Gender Total sample ( N = 72) Females
Jessica Plácido, José Vinicius Ferreira, Felipe de Oliveira Silva, Renan Baltar Ferreira, Carla Guimarães, Andréa Nunes de Carvalho, Jerson Laks, and Andrea Camaz Deslandes
with MCI and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Such impairments include aerobic capacity, strength, and mobility, suggesting the existence of interactions among physical ability, cognitive ability, and the development of dementia ( Buracchio et al., 2010 ; de Oliveira Silva, Ferreira, Plácido, Chagas, et
Aaron T. Scanlan, Emilija Stojanović, Zoran Milanović, Masaru Teramoto, Mario Jeličić, and Vincent J. Dalbo
aid recovery between supramaximal bouts (work:rest ratios of 1:3.5–1:4.3). 1 , 2 Furthermore, evidence suggests that a high aerobic capacity is significantly related to key offensive (assists, r = .66) and defensive (steals, r = .56) game activities in elite, female basketball players. 3 However
Hansel R. García-Correa, Lida J. Sánchez-Montoya, Jorge E. Daza-Arana, and Leidy T. Ordoñez-Mora
interventions are reported. In this present systematic review, we hypothesized that aerobic exercise can reduce chronic pain and improve aerobic capacity and physical function, thereby positively influencing the quality of patients’ lives. At the time of the literature search, we found no reports of meta
Mollie G. DeLozier, Richard G. Israel, Kevin F. O’Brien, Robert A. Shaw, and Walter J. Pories
This investigation quantified body composition and aerobic capacity and examined the interrelationships of these measures in 20 morbidly obese females (M age = 34.6 yrs) prior to gastric bypass surgery. Fifteen subjects were hydrostatically weighed at residual lung volume in order to determine body composition. Eighteen subjects performed a maximal modified progressive treadmill test to determine aerobic capacity. Results indicated that the 15 subjects who were weighed hydrostatically were heavier (M wt = 132.34 kg) and fatter (M % fat = 53.18) than any previously described individuals. Relative weight, which is used as a criterion to determine surgery eligibility, was not significantly (p > .05) correlated to percent body fat. Mean aerobic capacity (V̇O2 = 14.99 ml • kg-1 mir-1) was comparable to Class III cardiac patients and was limited by the individuals’ extreme body weight. Since relative weight was shown to be an insensitive measure of obesity, it is recommended that percent fat be measured and used as a means to determine eligibility for gastric bypass surgery. Further study of these individuals is warranted in order to determine what effects large weight loss following surgery will have on parameters of body composition and aerobic capacity. Understanding how large weight loss affects these parameters will aid in designing effective postsurgical exercise rehabilitative programs for future patients.
Anna Witkowska, Małgorzata Grabara, Dorota Kopeć, and Zbigniew Nowak
Aging is a physiological process involving deterioration of most systems, including aerobic capacity declines, which can lead to functional problems and loss of physical independence in older adults. 1 Maintenance of health and fitness and delaying aging require physical activity (PA). The
Mariana F.M. Oliveira, Fabrizio Caputo, Ricardo D. Lucas, Benedito S. Denadai, and Camila C. Greco
To identify the speed corresponding to anaerobic threshold using the D-max method for both blood lactate and biomechanical stroke parameters determined in an incremental swimming test and to compare this information with the speed corresponding to the maximal lactate steady state (SMLSS).
Five male long-distance swimmers and 8 triathletes (N = 13; age 23.8 ± 9.5 y, height 1.76 ± 0.1 m, weight 71.3 ± 9.8 kg) performed the following protocols: maximal 400-m test to determine maximal aerobic speed (S400); 7 × 200-m incremental test to determine the speed corresponding to the D-max point on the blood lactate (SLa), stroke-rate (SSR), stroke-length (SSL), and stroke-index (SSI) responses; and two to four 30-min submaximal tests to determine the SMLSS.
SLA (1.18 ± 0.08 m/s), SSI (1.18 ± 0.08 m/s), SSR (1.17 ± 0.1 m/s), and SSL (1.16 ± 0.09 m/s) were not significantly different from each other or from SMLSS (1.13 ± 0.08 m/s). There were high correlations between SLA, SSI, SSR, SSL, and SMLSS (r = .91, .89, .85, and .80, respectively). The typical errors of estimate for SLA (3.2%), SSI (3.7%), SSR (4.1%), and SSL (4.7%) suggest good validity of these variables to predict SMLSS. Furthermore, all physiological and biomechanical variables were moderately to highly correlated with S400 (r = .73–.95).
It is possible to obtain a physiological index of aerobic capacity and performance using simple biomechanical measurements during an incremental test without performing blood lactate analyses.
Kenneth H. Pitetti and Bo Fernhall
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between aerobic capacity (VO2peak) and leg strength of male (n = 17) and female (n = 12) youths (age = 14.2 ± 2.1 years) with mild to moderate mental retardation. Aerobic capacity was determined by a treadmill test (GXT) and isokinetic knee flexion and extension strength (peak torque, peak force, average force) was determined by isokinetic dynamometry. Results indicate that significant positive relationships (p < .05) exist between VO2peak (ml · min−1 · kg−1) and isokinetic leg strength expressed relative to body weight. The results indicate that leg strength is a contributor to aerobic fitness in youths with mental retardation. Additionally, when considering the low levels of both strength and VO2peak, leg strength may be a limiting factor of VO2peak in these youths, or the relationship may be explained by the concept of metabolic nonspecialization.