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Henry N. Williford, Michele Scharff Olson, Robert E. Keith, Jeffrey M. Barksdale, Daniel L. Blessing, Nai-Zhen Wang, and Pete Preston

This investigation evaluated the iron and nutritional status of 12 highly trained aerobic dance instructors who did not take iron supplements (ANS) and 8 who did (AS). A control group (C) consisted of 10 age matched controls. The aerobic instructors had exercised for approximately 3.8 days/wk, 56 min/session for the past 7 yrs. There were no significant differences among groups for energy intake, carbohydrate, protein, fat, nonheme iron, heme iron, or total iron intake (excluding supplemental iron). But both exercise groups had lower ferritin values than the control group. There was also a significant difference in mean cell volume (MCV), with both exercise groups having greater values than the control group. There were no differences among groups for serum iron, total iron binding capacity, transferrin saturation, hematocrit, or hemoglobin. One in three aerobic dance instructors had serum ferritin values below 12 μg · L−1. Results indicate that women exercise leaders have iron profiles that are similar to other groups of female athletes. The increased MCV values suggest runners' macrocytosis or an exercise induced macrocytosis.

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Mark D. Ricard and Steve Veatch

Aerobic dance movement sequences are similar to running in repetitive frequency. The purpose of this study was to compare ground reaction force variables in aerobic dance and running. Five female subjects performed 10 trials of five running speeds (2.4–4.0 ± 0.4 m/s) and five heights (0–8 ± 0.2 cm) of front knee lift aerobic dance steps on an AMTI force plate (1000 Hz). First peak impact force, peak loading rate, high-frequency impulse, and 50-ms impulse increased with increased running speed and jumping height. Time to first peak impact force decreased as running speed and jumping height increased. Although first peak impact forces resulting from airborne aerobic dance movements (1.96–2.62 BW) were greater than first peak impact forces in running (1.30–2.01 BW), running compared to aerobic dance resulted in shorter time to first peak impact force and higher values for loading rate, high-frequency impulse, and 50-ms impulse. When compared to aerobic dance, running exhibits smaller peak vertical forces but higher loading rates and vertical impulses.

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David Cluphf, John O’Connor, and Sandra Vanin

The purpose was to determine the effects of a 12-week, 3-days/week low-impact aerobic dance program on the cardiovascular endurance (CVE) of adults with intellectual disabilities (ID). The experimental group (8 males, 7 females) were adults (M age = 39) receiving employment training at a sheltered workshop. The control group (7 males, 5 females) were adults (M age = 37) affiliated with the same facility but employed offsite. Rockport Fitness Walking Test (RFWT) data were collected five times (pretest, and at 4, 8, 12, and 18 weeks). Repeated measures ANOVAs indicated that the experimental group performed significantly better than the control group on RFWT heart rates on the 8- and 12- week trials and on RFWT walk times at the posttest. Once the 12-week program was over, participants did not exercise. Follow-up measurements at 18 weeks revealed no significant differences between groups.

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Heidi I. Stanish, Jeffrey A. McCubbin, Christopher C. Draheim, and Hans van der Mars

The purpose was to compare two conditions (leader-plus-video, video-only) that involved different levels of support on facilitating engagement in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in adults with mental retardation (MR). Engagement was examined during 10-min aerobic dance sessions conducted 3 days per week over a 10-week experimental period followed by a 4-week maintenance period. The experimental design was single subject reversal (B-A-B-A). Participants were 17 adults (mean age = 42.6 years) with MR (5 females, 12 males) employed at a sheltered workshop. Visual analysis of graphed data revealed no meaningful difference between leader-plus-video and video-only conditions on MVPA engagement. Over 75% of the participants chose to attend each session over the 10-week experiment. Approximately 60% chose to attend during the 4-week maintenance period. Persons who attended, however, did not necessarily engage in MVPA.

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Mark D. Ricard and Steve Veatch

This study compared impact forces and loading rates in a high and low impact aerobic dance movement. Five subjects each performed five trials of the low impact front knee lift (LFKL) and five trials of the high impact front knee lift (HFKL). The data were recorded using an AMTI force plate at 1,000 Hz. A repeated-measures ANOVA was used to test for differences in selected variables for the LFKL and HFKL. Peak impact force was significantly lower in the LFKL than the HFKL, mean 0.98 BW and 1.98 BW, respectively. Mean loading rate was significantly lower in the LFKL (14.38 BW/s) than the HFKL (42.55 BW/s). Mean impact impulse during the first 50 ms of impact was significantly lower in the LFKL (0.0131 BW•s) than the HFKL (0.0295 BW•s). Based upon these differences in external ground reaction forces, it appears that low impact front knee lifts impose a significantly lower load than high impact front knee lifts.

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Jennifer N. Ahrens, Lisa K. Lloyd, Sylvia H. Crixell, and John L. Walker

People of all ages and fitness levels participate regularly in aerobic-dance bench stepping (ADBS) to increase fitness and control body weight. Any reasonable method for enhancing the experience or effectiveness of ADBS would be beneficial. This study examined the acute effects of a single dose of caffeine on physiological responses during ADBS in women. When compared with a placebo, neither a 3- nor a 6-mg/kg dose of caffeine altered physiological responses or rating of perceived exertion (RPE) in 20 women (age 19–28 y) of average fitness level, not habituated to caffeine, while they performed an ADBS routine. Since neither dose of caffeine had any effect on VO2, Vco2, minute ventilation, respiratory-exchange ratio, rate of energy expenditure, heart rate, or RPE during ADBS exercise, it would not be prudent for a group exercise leader to recommend caffeine to increase energy cost or decrease perception of effort in an ADBS session. Furthermore, caffeine ingestion should not interfere with monitoring intensity using heart rate or RPE during ADBS.

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Sarah A. Gordon, Tom J. Overend, and Anthony A. Vandervoort

Country line dancing (CLD) is a popular activity among older women. The American College of Sports Medicine and Health Canada recommend that aerobic exercise be performed for 20–60 min, 3–5 times/week, at an intensity of 65–90% of maximal heart rate (HR). The study measured responses to a bout of CLD in older women to determine whether it might be considered an aerobic activity for this population. Twenty healthy older women performed a 12-min walk lest (12WT) and a 1-hr CLD class. Heart rate and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and breathlessness (RPB) were compared between the 12WT and a representative 12-min period of the CLD class. Mean HR during CLD and the 12WT were not different. Mean RPE and RPB values were also similar between CLD and 12WT. The results suggest that CLD meets the guidelines for aerobic activity and can be considered an acceptable form of aerobic exercise for older women.

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Sally Crawford and Robert C. Eklund

Hart, Leary, and Rejeski (1989) hypothesized that social physique anxiety (SPA), self-presentational anxiety associated with the physique, may deter some people from participating in fitness programs. This contention was explored in the present investigation. Data were collected from 104 undergraduate females regarding SPA, weight satisfaction, body satisfaction, and reasons for exercise. Following each of two video presentations of aerobics classes as stimulus materials, attitudes toward the favorability of the exercise settings were assessed. One class wore attire emphasizing the physique; the other appeared in shorts and T-shirts, deemphasizing the physique. Multiple regression analyses revealed SPA was associated with favorability of attitudes toward both exercise settings. SPA was negatively associated with favorability of the setting emphasizing the physique and was positively related to favorability of the setting de-emphasizing the physique. The results indicate that self-presentational, theoretical perspectives may be useful in understanding exercise behavior patterns.

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Robert C. Eklund and Sally Crawford

The purpose of this investigation was to replicate and extend Crawford and Eklund's (1994) investigation of social physique anxiety (SPA) and exercise. Women (N = 94) enrolled in physical education activity or major classes participated in the investigation. Data were collected on SPA, weight satisfaction, percent body fat, reasons for exercise, exercise behaviors and preferences, and attitudes toward two aerobic class video presentations featuring a manipulation of physique salience. Consistent with the previous investigation, self-presentational reasons for exercise (body tone, weight control, and physical attractiveness) were positively associated with SPA in both simple correlations and hierarchical analyses controlling for body composition. In contrast to previous findings, SPA was not associated with favorability of attitudes toward either of the video presentations. The inability to fully replicate Crawford and Eklund's (1993) findings raised interesting questions with regard to variables that may moderate or mediate self-presentational anxiety in exercise settings.

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Zan Gao and Ping Xiang


Exergaming has been considered a fun solution to promoting a physically active lifestyle. This study examined the impact of an exergaming-based program on urban children’s physical activity participation, body composition and perceptions of the program.


A sample of 185 children’s physical activity was measured in August 2009 (pretest), and percent body fat was used as index of body composition. Fourth graders were assigned to intervention group engaging in 30 minutes exergaming-based activities 3 times per week, while third and fifth graders were in comparison group. Measurements were repeated 9 months later (posttest). Interviews were conducted among 12 intervention children.


ANCOVA with repeated measures revealed a significant main effect for intervention, F(1, 179) = 10.69, P < .01. Specifically, intervention children had significantly greater increased physical activity levels than comparison children. Logistic regression for body composition indicated intervention children did not differ significantly in percent body fat change from comparison children, Chi square = 5.42, P = .14. Children interviewed reported positive attitudes toward the intervention.


The implementation of exergaming-based program could have a significantly positive effect on children’s physical activity participation and attitudes. Meanwhile, long-term effect of the program on children’s body composition deserves further investigation.