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Peter Hastie, Oleg Sinelnikov and Danielle Wadsworth

Background:

This study compares the aerobic fitness status of a sample of rural American and Russian children, and examines these findings in light of their out of school physical activity participation.

Methods:

Ten and eleven year old (N = 415) children from both countries completed a 15 m Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER) fitness test, and following the test, the children scoring beyond the upper limit of the healthy fitness zone were interviewed with regard to their out-of-school participation in physical activity.

Results:

The Russian students achieved significantly higher scores than American students (P < .001), and males scored higher than females for both countries (P < .001). After examining the profiles of the students 3 apparent themes begin to emerge: Russian students walk to and from school; the students in both settings who achieve a superior fitness level participate in after school physical activity; after school activities for the American students appear to be more recreational orientated than the Russian students, who participate in structured training in sports clubs.

Conclusions:

For the students in this study, it appears that participating in after school activity may have contributed to achieving high levels of aerobic fitness.

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Diego Augusto Santos Silva, Mark Tremblay, Andreia Pelegrini, Roberto Jeronimo dos Santos Silva, Antonio Cesar Cabral de Oliveira and Edio Luiz Petroski

Purpose:

Criterion-referenced cut-points for health-related fitness measures are lacking. This study aimed to determine the associations between aerobic fitness and high blood pressure levels (HBP) to determine the cut-points that best predict HBP among adolescents.

Method:

This cross-sectional school-based study with sample of 875 adolescents aged 14–19 years was conducted in southern Brazil. Aerobic fitness was assessed using the modified Canadian Aerobic Fitness Test (mCAFT). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured by the oscillometric method with a digital sphygmomanometer. Analyses controlled for sociodemographic variables, physical activity, body mass and biological maturation.

Results:

Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves demonstrated that mCAFT measures could discriminate HBP in both sexes (female: AUC = 0.70; male: AUC = 0.63). The cut-points with the best discriminatory power for HBP were 32 mL·kg-1·min-1 for females and 40 mL·kg-1·min-1 for males. Females (OR = 8.4; 95% CI: 2.1, 33.7) and males (OR: 2.5; CI 95%: 1.2, 5.2) with low aerobic fitness levels were more likely to have HBP.

Conclusion:

mCAFT measures are inversely associated with BP and cut-points from ROC analyses have good discriminatory power for HBP.

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Neil Armstrong

Aerobic (or cardiorespiratory or cardiopulmonary) fitness reflects the integrated ability to deliver oxygen from the atmosphere to the skeletal muscles and to utilize it to generate energy to support muscle activity during exercise. Aerobic fitness is the most researched physiological variable in

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Stephen H. Boutcher

The effects of aerobic fitness on psychological and behavioral variables are currently receiving increased attention. However, the results of past research in these areas are equivocal, mainly due to differences in the methods used to quantify aerobic fitness and the failure to address issues concerning adaptation responses to aerobic training. It is suggested that direct assessment of V02max and estimation of lactate threshold are currently the most suitable measures of aerobic power and adaptation responses to aerobic exercise. To better understand how aerobic fitness affects psychological variables, it is also necessary to consider genetic influences and level and mode of adaptation to aerobic training. It is suggested that there should be more focus on examining underlying mechanisms common to both aerobic fitness and the phenomenon of interest. This focus should integrate multiple adaptation patterns and physiological and psychological responses rather than measure solitary parameters.

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Lauren B. Raine, John R. Biggan, Carol L. Baym, Brian J. Saliba, Neal J. Cohen and Charles H. Hillman

fitness may be particularly important as it has been positively related to academic achievement [ie, the Illinois Standards Achievement Test (ISAT) and the Nebraska State Accountability test] ( 4 , 34 ). Specifically, aerobic fitness was assessed with the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run

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John F. Fitzpatrick, Kirsty M. Hicks and Philip R. Hayes

knowledge, there has yet to be a study comparing the dose–response relationship between arbitrary and individualized methods for assessing training loads and a specific training outcome, such as changes in aerobic fitness. Therefore, it was the aim of this study to compare the dose–response relationship

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Neil Armstrong

Three papers which between them raise controversial issues, apply laboratory measures to sport performance, and expose gaps in knowledge were selected for commentary. The first paper (Sports Med. 2016;46:1451–1460) reviews the literature on peak V̇O2 in relation to body size and recommends that peak V̇O2 in youth is best expressed via allometric scaling of lean body mass. The second paper (Pediatr Exerc Sci. 2016;28:456–465) reports that maturity status has no effect on peak V̇O2, respiratory compensation point, or ventilatory threshold in youth soccer players once data have been allometrically normalized by lower limb muscle volume. It concludes that in future this technique should be used to compare the aerobic fitness of youth soccer players. The third paper (Eur J Appl Physiol. 2016;116:1781–1794) demonstrates that V̇O2 kinetics determined in a laboratory is related to measures associated with soccer match play and might distinguish superior performance within a group of highly trained youth players. The commentary stresses the importance of experimental rigor, emphasizes the need for appropriate scaling of physiological variables, challenges spurious correlations with health-related variables, endorses the use of a range of aerobic fitness measures, welcomes the application of laboratory data to sport performance, and identifies areas for future research.

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Richard J. Taylor, Dajo Sanders, Tony Myers, Grant Abt, Celia A. Taylor and Ibrahim Akubat

Rugby union is a high-impact collision sport played over 80 minutes. 1 Games are typically aerobic in nature, interspersed with frequent bouts of high-speed accelerations combined with high-impact collisions from tackles, scrums, rucks, and mauls. 2 Aerobic fitness has previously been shown to be

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Neil Armstrong

For “The Year That Was 2017,” 3 papers have been selected, which contribute to the current debate on the assessment and interpretation of pediatric aerobic fitness (referred to as cardiopulmonary fitness or cardiorespiratory fitness in 2 papers). The first paper critically reviews the importance of

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Neil Armstrong

In Volume 1 of Pediatric Exercise Science (PES), a paper by Fenster et al. (25) investigated the relationship between peak oxygen uptake (peak V̇O2) and physical activity (PA) in 6- to 8-year-old children. They used both questionnaires and large-scale integrated activity monitors (LSIs) to estimate daily PA and determined peak V̇O2 using an incremental treadmill test to volitional exhaustion. They concluded that peak V̇O2 correlated well with PA as measured by LSIs but commented that questionnaire data were only weakly and nonsignificantly associated with LSI and peak V̇O2 data. Peak V̇O2 and PA are the most researched and reported variables in the 25-year history of PES. Yet, the assessment and interpretation of young people’s aerobic fitness and PA remain problematic and any meaningful relationship between them during childhood and adolescence is shrouded with controversy. The present paper uses Fenster et al.’s (25) report as an indicator of where we were 25 years ago, outlines how far we have advanced since then, and suggests future directions of research in the study of aerobic fitness and PA.

In the first volume of PES, Fenster et al. (25) investigated the relationship between 6- to 8-year-old children’s peak oxygen uptake (peak V̇O2) and physical activity (PA). Five boys and 13 girls participated in the study and their data were pooled for analysis. Peak V̇O2 was determined during an incremental treadmill test to voluntary exhaustion and PA was estimated using both questionnaires and large-scale integrated activity monitors (LSIs). On the basis of a significant interclass correlation coefficient of r = .59 between peak V̇O2 and the log of LSI average counts per hour Fenster et al. (25) concluded that “aerobic capacity, as measured by peak V̇O2 correlated well with physical activity as measured by LSI” (p.134).

They also commented that questionnaire data were only weakly and nonsignificantly associated with LSI and peak V̇O2 data. Young people’s peak V̇O2 and PA are the most researched and reported variables in the 25-year history of PES and yet the assessment and interpretation of peak V̇O2 and PA and any meaningful relationship between them during growth and maturation are still shrouded with controversy. The present paper uses Fenster et al.’s (25) work as an indicator of our understanding of young people’s peak V̇O2 and PA in 1989, briefly reviews what we know in 2013, and suggests future directions of research.