, and likely unable, to capture other training-relevant constructs, such as the perception of fatigue, discomfort, and affective valence experienced before, during, or after training. 8 , 9 Measuring such constructs offers additional layers of actionable knowledge. 10 , 11 To date, however, these
Aviv Emanuel, Isaac Rozen Smukas and Israel Halperin
Abby R. Fleming, Nic Martinez, Larry H. Collins, Candi D. Ashley, Maureen Chiodini, Brian J. Waddell and Marcus W. Kilpatrick
produce good exercise adherence ( Coyle, 2005 ). Over the last several years, research has carefully evaluated acute psychological responses to HIIT. Despite not having a clear consensus in the accumulated literature, the evidence does suggest that affective valence responses during exercise and ratings
David M. Williams, Shira Dunsiger, Jessica A. Emerson, Chad J. Gwaltney, Peter M. Monti and Robert Miranda Jr.
Affective response to exercise may mediate the effects of self-paced exercise on exercise adherence. Fiftynine low-active (exercise <60 min/week), overweight (body mass index: 25.0–39.9) adults (ages 18–65) were randomly assigned to self-paced (but not to exceed 76% maximum heart rate) or prescribed moderate intensity exercise (64–76% maximum heart rate) in the context of otherwise identical 6-month print-based exercise promotion programs. Frequency and duration of exercise sessions and affective responses (good/bad) to exercise were assessed via ecological momentary assessment throughout the 6-month program. A regression-based mediation model was used to estimate (a) effects of experimental condition on affective response to exercise (path a = 0.20, SE = 0.28, f 2 = 0.02); (b) effects of affective response on duration/latency of the next exercise session (path b = 0.47, SE = 0.25, f 2 = 0.04); and (c) indirect effects of experimental condition on exercise outcomes via affective response (path ab = 0.11, SE = 0.06, f 2 = 0.10). Results provide modest preliminary support for a mediational pathway linking self-paced exercise, affective response, and exercise adherence.
Jeanette M. Ricci, Todd A. Astorino, Katharine D. Currie and Karin A. Pfeiffer
adherence throughout the lifespan ( 41 ). In adults, brief repeated bouts of VPA similar to HIIE do not diminish the affective valence and/or enjoyment often experienced during continuous or graded vigorous exercise and may not hinder future exercise adherence ( 44 ). In adolescents, it appears that the
Aviv Emanuel, Isaac Isur Rozen Smukas and Israel Halperin
Ribeiro et al 4 for an exception). Subjective responses include, but are not limited to, perception of effort, fatigue, and affective valence (expanded upon below). By measuring the subjective responses associated with lifting different loads, important pieces of information can be collected and acted
Kate E. Sheppard and Gaynor Parfitt
This study examined the patterning of acute affective responses to prescribed and self-selected exercise intensities in a young adolescent population. Twenty-two young adolescents (13.3 ± .33 years) completed a maximal exercise test to identify ventilatory threshold (VT). Participants then completed two prescribed intensities (one set above and one below the VT) and a self-selected intensity. Pre-, during, and postexercise affective valence was measured. Results revealed that during exercise, affective valence assessed by the Feeling Scale (FS) remained positive in the self-selected and low-intensity conditions but declined in the high-intensity condition. Postexercise FS responses rebounded to preexercise levels, eradicating divergent trends that occurred during exercise.
Adrian Taylor, Magdalena Katomeri and Michael Ussher
The study examined whether walking can mimic the effects of nicotine during temporary abstinence, by eliciting changes in mood and affect and by reducing cravings. In a randomized crossover design, 15 participants did a self-paced 1-mile walk or sat passively on separate days. A repeated-measures ANOVA revealed a significant reduction in desire to smoke during and for up to 20 min following exercise. Further MANOVAs and univariate ANOVAs revealed significant interaction effects for time-by-condition for tension, and affective valence and activation. Walking reduced tension and increased affective valence and activation during and up to 20 min after exercise, but increased activation only at the end of exercise. ANCOVAs revealed that exercise-induced reductions in cravings were mediated through reduced tension. Walking should be recommended for reducing cravings, but further research is needed to understand whether the arousing properties of exercise can help manage cravings.
Charlotte C. Benjamin, Alex Rowlands and Gaynor Parfitt
Past studies have shown the patterning of affective responses during a graded exercise test (GXT) in adult and male adolescent populations, but none have explored the patterns in adolescent girls or younger children. This study explored the patterning of affective responses during a GXT in adolescents and younger children. Forty-nine children (21 male and 28 female) aged between 8–14 years (10.8 ± 1.8 years) completed a GXT. Ventilatory threshold (VT) was identified. At the end of each incremental step, participants reported affective valence. Results revealed that affective valence assessed by the Feeling Scale (FS) significantly declined from the onset of exercise until the point of VT in the younger children, but remained relatively stable in the adolescents. Exercise above the VT brought about significant declines in affective valence regardless of age or sex, but the decrease was significantly greater in adolescents. Results suggest it may be preferable to prescribe lower exercise intensities (below VT) for children, compared with adolescents, to ensure a positive affective response.
Eric E. Hall and Steven J. Petruzzello
Physical activity has been consistently linked to better mental health—greater positive affect and life satisfaction, less negative affect, anxiety, and depression (Petruzzello et al., 1991; McAuley & Rudolph, 1995). Brain activation patterns have been linked to dispositional affect: greater relative left anterior hemisphere activation relates to positive affect, and greater relative right anterior activation relates to negative affect (Davidson, 1992). In this study, measures of resting EEG frontal asymmetry, dispositional affect, and physical activity were obtained from 41 older adults. Frontal asymmetry significantly predicted positive affect. In the high active group (n = 21), frontal asymmetry significantly predicted affective valence and satisfaction with life; in the low active group (n = 20), it significantly predicted negative affect. Physical activity was also significantly related to better dispositional affect. These findings suggest that the relationship between frontal brain activity and dispositional affect is influenced by physical activity in older adults.
Lisa M. Van Landuyt, Panteleimon Ekkekakis, Eric E. Hall and Steven J. Petruzzello
Traditional conceptions of the exercise–affect relationship postulate that moderate-intensity exercise leads to positive affective changes in all or most individuals, and it can, therefore, be prescribed for all individuals involved in exercise programs. This study investigated whether this assumption is true, not only at the level of group averages but also at the level of individuals. Affect was assessed before, during, and after a session of moderate-intensity cycle ergometry using a dimensional conceptualization of affect. Examination of individual responses revealed a diversity of patterns that was masked by aggregate-based analyses. Mean ratings of affective valence were shown to remain stable during exercise, but in actuality almost half of the individuals experienced progressive improvement, whereas the other half experienced progressive deterioration. The diversity of individual affective responses must be taken into account in formulating conceptual models of the exercise–affect relationship and deriving public health physical activity recommendations.