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Exploring Work-Time Affective States Through Ecological Momentary Assessment in an Office-Based Intervention to Reduce Occupational Sitting

Guy Faulkner, Katie A. Weatherson, Markus J. Duncan, Kelly B. Wunderlich, and Eli Puterman

immediate but transient ways. This would be particularly the case for basic affect and distinct affective states. Basic affect can be considered the most general valenced experiential response (ie, good/pleasure vs bad/displeasure). 16 Distinct affective states, such as emotions and moods (eg, fatigue and

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A Temporal Study on Coach Behavior Profiles: Relationships With Athletes Coping and Affects Within Sport Competition

Higinio González-García, Guillaume Martinent, and Michel Nicolas

aforementioned multivariate coach behavior profiles could offer a promising platform for examining the complex associations of coach behaviors with key athletes’ outcomes, such as affective states and coping. We selected these two variables because they seem particularly salient for a sample of competitive

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A Cluster Analysis of Affective States Before and During Competition

Guillaume Martinent, Michel Nicolas, Patrick Gaudreau, and Mickaël Campo

The purposes of the current study were to identify affective profiles of athletes both before and during the competition and to examine differences between these profiles on coping and attainment of sport goals among a sample of 306 athletes. The results of hierarchical (Ward’s method) and nonhierarchical (k means) cluster analyses revealed four different clusters both before and during the competition. The four clusters were very similar at the two measurement occasions: high positive affect facilitators (n = 88 and 81), facilitators (n = 75 and 25), low affect debilitators (n = 83 and 127), and high negative affect debilitators (n = 60 and 73). Results of MANOVAs revealed that coping and attainment of sport achievement goal significantly differed across the affective profiles. Results are discussed in terms of current research on positive and negative affective states.

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Overtraining During Preseason: Stress and Negative Affective States Among Professional Rugby Union Players

Adam R. Nicholls, Jim McKenna, Remco C.J. Polman, and Susan H. Backhouse

The aim of this study was to explore the perceived factors that contribute to stress and negative affective states during preseason among a sample of professional rugby union players. The participants were 12 male professional rugby union players between 18 and 21 years of age (M age = 19 years, SD = 0.85). Data were collected via semistructured interviews and analyzed using an inductive content analysis procedure. Players identified training (structure and volume), the number of matches played and the recovery period, diet, sleep, and travel as factors that they believed contributed to their experience of stress and negative affective states. The present findings suggest that players may require more time to recover between matches, alongside interventions to help players manage the symptoms of stress and negative affect during times in which players are overtraining.

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Autonomous Regulation Mode Moderates the Effect of Actual Physical Activity on Affective States: An Ambulant Assessment Approach to the Role of Self-Determination

Martina Kanning, Ulrich Ebner-Priemer, and Ralf Brand

Studies have shown that physical activity influences affective states. However, studies have seldom depicted these associations in ongoing real-life situations, and there is no investigation showing that motivational states (i.e., more or less autonomously regulated) would moderate these effects in situ. To investigate the interaction of autonomous regulation and actual physical activity (aPA) with affective states, we use an ambulatory assessment approach. The participants were 44 university students (mean age: 26.2 ± 3.2 years). We assessed aPA through 24-hr accelerometry and affective states and autonomous regulation via electronic diaries. Palmtop devices prompted subjects every 45 min during a 14-hr daytime period. We performed hierarchical multilevel analyses. Both aPA and autonomous regulation significantly influenced affective states. The interaction was significant for two affects. The higher the volume of aPA and thereby the more autonomously regulated the preceding bout of aPA was, the more our participants felt energized (r = .16) but agitated (r = −.18).

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Can You Tell Who Scores? An Assessment of the Recognition of Affective States Based on the Nonverbal Behavior of Amateur Tennis Players in Competitive Matches

Julian Fritsch, Kirstin Seiler, Matthias Wagner, Chris Englert, and Darko Jekauc

affective states 1 can be recognized. The study of affective states and associated nonverbal behavior of the present study can be integrated into the biocultural framework of nonverbal behavior ( Furley, 2021 ) as well as the theory on emotions in competitive sports ( Jekauc et al., 2021 ). The biocultural

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Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Subjective Exercise Experiences Scale among Children

David Markland, Mark Emberton, and Rachel Tallon

The aims of this study were to assess the factorial and construct validity of the Subjective Exercise Experiences Scale (SEES; McAuley & Coumeya, 1994) among children. Following a pilot study designed to check British children’s comprehension of the instrument, two groups of children completed a modified SEES prior to and after taking part in a game of rounders (n = 110) or a maximal exercise test (n = 121). Confirmatory factor analysis revealed a good fit of the hypothesized model to the data after the removal of two problematic items that were identified by examining residuals and modification indices. Multisample analyses supported the generalizability of the factor structure across gender pre- and postexercise and across exercise mode. Analyses of pre- to postexercise changes in subscale scores gave some evidence for construct validity. The findings suggest that the modified SEES may be useful in examining questions concerning exercise and affect among children.

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Real-Time Data Collection to Examine Relations Between Physical Activity and Affect in Adults With Mental Illness

Danielle R. Madden, Chun Nok Lam, Brian Redline, Eldin Dzubur, Harmony Rhoades, Stephen S. Intille, Genevieve F. Dunton, and Benjamin Henwood

relation to physical activity, individuals are more likely to engage in activity, but negative affective states predict less engagement ( Liao et al., 2015 ; Niermann et al., 2016 ). Adults with serious mental illness (SMI), such as individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or major

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The Effect of Exercise on Affective and Self-Efficacy Responses in Older and Younger Women

Fiona Barnett


This study examined the self-efficacy and affective responses to an acute exercise bout in sedentary older and younger women to determine whether aging has an effect on affective states.


Twenty-five sedentary younger (mean age = 19.9 yrs) and 25 older (mean age = 55.7 yrs) women completed an acute bout of exercise. Affective responses were measured before, during, and immediately following exercise. Self-efficacy responses were measured before and immediately following exercise.


Positive engagement, revitalization, tranquility, Felt Arousal and Feeling Scale responses, and self-efficacy were all higher immediately following compared with before or during exercise for both groups of women. In addition, older women experienced higher overall positive engagement and lower physical exhaustion compared with younger women as well as higher tranquility and Feeling Scale responses immediately following exercise.


This investigation found that an acute bout of moderate-intensity exercise produced more positive and fewer negative affective states in both younger and older women.

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Emotional Labeling and Competitive Anxiety in Preparation and Competition

Stephen D. Mellalieu, Sheldon Hanton, and Graham Jones

The purpose of this study was to extend the work of Jones and Hanton (2001) by examining differences in affective states of performers who reported facilitating or debilitating interpretations of symptoms associated with precompetitive anxiety. Competitive athletes (N = 229) completed state and trait versions of the CSAI-2 (Martens, Burton, Vealey, Bump, & Smith, 1990), including intensity and direction subscales (Jones & Swain, 1992) and an exploratory measure of precompetitive affective responses in preparation and competition. “Facilitators” reported significantly greater positive labeling of affective experiences than “debilitators,” while cognitive interpretations of symptoms were reported to change with regard to preparation for and actual performance. The findings further support the need to examine the labeling and measurement of precompetitive affective states.