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Norikazu Hirose and Chikako Nakahori

Purpose:

To describe cross-sectional age differences in change-of-direction performance (CODp) in female football players and investigate the relationship between CODp and linear-sprint speed, muscle power, and body size.

Methods:

A sample of 135 well-trained female football players was divided into 8 age groups. Anthropometry (height, body mass, and lean body mass) and athletic performance (10-m sprint speed, 10-m × 5-CODp, and 5-step bounding distance) were compared to determine interage differences using ANOVA. Then, the participants were divided into 3 age groups: 12- to 14-y-olds, 15- to 17-y-olds, and ≥ 18 y-olds. Simple- and multiple-regression analyses were conducted to determine the correlation between CODp and the other measurement variables in each age group.

Results:

Age-related differences were found for CODp (F = 10.41, P < .01), sprint speed (F = 3.27, P < .01), and bounding distance (F = 4.20, P < .01). Post hoc analysis revealed that the CODp of 17-y-old players was faster than that of 16-y-old players (P < .01), with no interage differences in sprint speed and bounding distance. Sprint speed and bounding distance were weakly correlated with CODp in 15- to ≥18-y-old players, but only sprint speed was correlated with CODp in 12- to 14-y-old players.

Conclusions:

CODp improves from 16 to 17 y of age in female players. Linear-sprint speed, muscle power, and body size were weakly correlated with the age differences in CODp.

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Lauren Gulka, James Dziura and Loretta DiPietro

Background:

Little attention has been paid to the study of transient growth hormone (GH) responses to exercise in older women. We determined the effect of a single bout of exercise on GH in fit and unfit older (age 55 to 81 y; n = 19) and younger (age 18 to 25 y; n = 19) women.

Methods:

Exercise consisted of five 15-min intervals of treadmill exercise at 75% VO2peak. Blood samples were taken before, during, and following exercise for determination of plasma GH and insulin concentrations.

Results:

GH responses to exercise were attenuated in older compared with younger women (P < 0.01); however, these age differences were minimized in older age by fitness level. Adjusted area under the curve for GH was 5.50 and 1.76 µg/L · 102 for fit and unfit older women (P < 0.01), and 8.46 and 8.46 µg/L · 102 for fit and unfit younger women.

Conclusions:

Low levels of cardiorespiratory fitness in older women may require a greater relative exercise stimulus to augment meaningful GH responses.

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Charlotte Louise Edwardson, Trish Gorely, Natalie Pearson and Andrew Atkin

Background:

To progress physical activity (PA) social support research using objective measures of PA, attention should be turned to specific segments of the day (eg, after school or weekends) in which young people spend the majority of their time with parents or friends. Furthermore, the majority of previous research has focused on the influence of parents and peers. The current study examined gender and age differences in 5 sources of activity-related social support and their relationship with objectively measured after-school and weekend PA among adolescents.

Methods:

328 adolescents aged 12–16 years (57% boys) wore an accelerometer for 7 days and completed a questionnaire assessing support for PA. After-school and weekend PA were extracted.

Results:

Adolescents perceived more support from their peers compared with other sources and boys perceived more peer support than girls. Younger adolescents perceived greater amounts of family support and explicit modeling from both mother and father; however, logistic support appeared constant throughout adolescence. After controlling for gender and age, peer support was a significant influence on after-school MVPA.

Conclusions:

Findings suggest that there may be benefit in encouraging adolescents to participate in PA in the after-school period with their peers.

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Dennis E. Anderson, Christopher T. Franck and Michael L. Madigan

The effects of gait speed and step length on the required coefficient of friction (COF) confound the investigation of age-related differences in required COF. The goals of this study were to investigate whether age differences in required COF during self-selected gait persist when experimentally-controlling speed and step length, and to determine the independent effects of speed and step length on required COF. Ten young and 10 older healthy adults performed gait trials under five gait conditions: self-selected, slow and fast speeds without controlling step length, and slow and fast speeds while controlling step length. During self-selected gait, older adults walked with shorter step lengths and exhibited a lower required COF. Older adults also exhibited a lower required COF when walking at a controlled speed without controlling step length. When both age groups walked with the same speed and step length, no age difference in required COF was found. Thus, speed and step length can have a large influence on studies investigating age-related differences in required COF. It was also found that speed and step length have independent and opposite effects on required COF, with step length having a strong positive effect on required COF, and speed having a weaker negative effect.

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Rachel Cole, Mohammad Javad Koohsari, Alison Carver, Neville Owen and Takemi Sugiyama

, K. , . . . King , A. ( 2009 ). Age differences in the relation of perceived neighborhood environment to walking . Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 41 ( 2 ), 314 – 321 . PubMed ID: 19127195 doi:10.1249/MSS.0b013e318185496c 10.1249/MSS.0b013e318185496c Sugiyama , T. , Cerin , E

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Paul G. Campbell, Domhnall MacAuley, Evelyn McCrum and Alun Evans

Different people exercise for different reasons. Older persons may have different priorities than younger ones and thus are motivated to exercise by different factors. Given the changing demographics with an increasing proportion of older adults in the general population, it is important that we do not overlook this cohort when designing health promotion and illness prevention programs. Motivating factors for physical activity were recorded by participants (N = 916) in the Northern Ireland Health and Activity Survey (1994) using an extensive computerized interview. In 10 of the 13 motivating factors for exercise studied, there were significant differences between age groups on the importance of personal goals and the perceived efficacy of exercise in achieving these goals. This has implications for exercise promotion programs.

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Pablo Floría and Andrew J. Harrison

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of age on the use of arm swing in the vertical jump. Counter-movement jumps with arms (CMJA) and without arms (CMJ) performed by 36 girls and 20 adult females were examined using force platform analysis. The data were analyzed to determine differences between groups and between types of jump. The analysis of the data indicated that the arm action increased the jump height in both groups, although the increase was greater in children than adults (22.6% and 18.7% respectively; P < .05). This difference in jump height was due to a combination of a greater increase of the height at take-off in children compared with adults (40.6% and 21.6% respectively; P < .05) with no differences in the increase of the flight height. This increase in height of take-off was accompanied by an increase in the distance of propulsion in CMJA compared with CMJ (0.25 m and 0.23 m respectively; P < .05). The results suggested that children take advantage of the action of the arms in vertical jump differently than adults. The children improved their jump height by increasing height at take-off whereas the adults improved by increasing the flight height.

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Anthony J. Amorose and Maureen R. Weiss

This study examined, from a developmental perspective, how coaching feedback serves as an ability cue. Boys and girls (N = 60) comprising 2 age groups (6-8, 12-14) viewed videotapes of youth athletes attempting to hit a baseball or softball, followed by a coach who provided evaluative, informational, or neutral feedback. Participants then rated each athlete’s ability, effort, and future expectancy of success. Separate 2 × 2 × 3 (age × gender × feedback type) repeated measures MANOVAs were conducted for the successful and unsuccessful outcome conditions. Following successful attempts, both older and younger children rated praise higher than neutral and informational feedback as a source of ability information. Athletes receiving informational feedback following unsuccessful attempts were rated highest, followed by neutral feedback and criticism. Open-ended questions revealed some age-related differences in use of ability information. Results are discussed in relation to research on sources of competence information and coaching feedback.

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Richelle M. Williams, Trevor Rice, Kenneth Lam and Tamara Valovich McLeod

Postural control is an integral part of sport participation and is often measured when assessing concussion and rehabilitating musculoskeletal injuries. The purpose of this study was to determine whether developmental differences in postural control, as measured by the Stability Evaluation Test protocol, exist between multiple male age groups (9–25-years-old). Significant differences were present across age groups, suggesting pediatric males demonstrated higher sway velocity scores than older males. We also found that preadolescent males showed increased postural sway when compared with older populations. Overall, it was found that age-related differences exist in postural control, with older males demonstrating less sway, and therefore better postural control.

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Lauren J. Lattimer, Joel L. Lanovaz, Jonathan P. Farthing, Stéphanie Madill, Soo Kim, Stephen Robinovitch and Cathy Arnold

and prevent postural collapse when stability is challenged by an unstable surface ( Anderson, Gaetz, Holzmann, & Twist, 2013 ), but female age differences in the activation of trunk muscles to control posture during a simulated postimpact descent has not been studied. The purpose of this study was to