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James H. Swan, Robert Friis, and Keith Turner

Baby Boomers might not consider themselves as growing old but are starting to reach the last quarter of average life spans. This article asks how Boomers prepare for their fourth quarters through physical activity. Three years (1999–2001) of National Health Interview Survey data yielded 96,501 adult respondents. Dependent variables were moderate, vigorous, and strengthening activity. Old boomers (1946–1955) and young boomers (1956–1965) were compared to respondents born before 1926, after 1975, and 10-year cohorts between. SUDAAN multiple logistic regression adjusted for complex sampling structure and multiply imputed income. Age-adjusted, older cohorts showed greater likelihood of activity than younger cohorts, offsetting moderate-activity declines with age until sharp decreases at advanced age: a plateau across Boomer and younger-aged cohorts. Interventions should promote activity at intensities and frequencies to which Boomers are most receptive.

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Anthony Campitelli, Sally Paulson, Jennifer Vincenzo, Jordan M. Glenn, Joshua L. Gills, Megan D. Jones, Melissa Powers, and Michelle Gray

( Balachandran et al., 2020 ; Glenn, Gray, Vincenzo, et al., 2017 ). Second, we investigated how lower-body average and peak muscular power outcomes differ as a function of age cohort and sex, and the interaction of these two nominal factors during the STS movement task. Methods Study Design This study was

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Seoha Min, Sumin Koo, and Jennifer Wilson

perceptible aspect of a garment’s design that impacts design factors, such as sleeve length, collar shape, and the number of pockets. Findings from this study will offer insights to designers who seek to better understand and market to this age cohort by designing relevant garments for their gardening

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Michael Annear, Tetsuhiro Kidokoro, and Yasuo Shimizu

gaps in the extant literature, the aim of the study was to explore PA parameters among urban-living middle-aged and older Japanese during the build-up for hosting the Olympics. Potential age-cohort influences on PA are relevant due to the rapid aging of the population in Japan and the need to

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Miguel A. De la Cámara, Ana I. Pardos-Sevilla, Augusto Jiménez-Fuente, Thamara Hubler-Figueiró, Eleonora d’Orsi, and Cassiano Ricardo Rech

associated with this outcome based on the combined categories of objectively measured PA and SB. Methods Study and Participants This was a cross-sectional sub-study that used data from the second wave of the Health Conditions of Older Adults in Florianópolis (EpiFloripa Aging Cohort Study) with interviews

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Sida Chen, Zixue Tai, and Jianping Liu

encourage TJQ practice as a mass endeavor. Moreover, there is an age cohort effect pointing to the aged 20 to 49 demographic as the high probability group for both noninitiation and nonretention, with the teenager and aged 50-plus cohorts displaying higher initiation and retention rates. The elevated

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Herbert W. Marsh

Age and gender effects in 10 physical self-concept scales for elite athletes and nonathletes were based on responses from 4 age cohorts (grades 7-10 in high school) who completed the same instrument 4 times during a 2-year period. A multicohort-multioccasion design provides a stronger basis for assessing development differences than a cross-sectional comparison collected on a single occasion or a longitudinal comparison based on responses by a single age cohort collected on multiple occasions. Across all 10 physical self-concepts there were substantial differences due to group (athletes greater than nonathletes), gender (males greater than females), and gender x group interactions (athletes less than nonathletes in gender differences). There were no significant effects of age cohort and only very small effects of occasions. Thus longitudinal and cross-sectional comparisons both showed that mean levels of physical self-concept were stable over this potentially volatile adolescent period and that this stability generalized over gender, age, and athlete groups.

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Nicola Brown and Yasmin Bowmer

younger cohort ( M  = 2.70, SD  = 0.59) compared to the middle-aged cohort ( M  = 2.43, SD  = 0.60; F [1, 169] = 8.11, p  = .005, η p 2 = 0.046 , 1-β = 0.808). No significant differences were observed between groups for the remaining barrier subscales (Table  2 ). The motivator subscales were ranked

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James Curtis, Philip White, and Barry McPherson

This study reports on age-group differences in leisure-time sport and physical activity involvement among a large sample of Canadians interviewed at 2 points during the 1980s. Comparisons are made for 5 age cohorts, for men and women, and without and with multivariate controls. The results contradict the usual finding of an inverse relationship between age and level of physical activity. On measures of (a) activity necessary to produce health benefits and (b) energy expenditure. Canadians over 65 were as active as, or more active than, their younger counterparts, and their activities did not decline over the 7 years between interviews. The extent of change varied by age and across women and men. Among women, increases in involvement were greatest in the middle-aged. Among men, the greatest increase was in the oldest age groups. For both genders, the youngest age cohort showed the smallest change over time, and there was evidence of slight declines in activity levels among young men.

Open access

Stewart G. Trost, Christopher C. Drovandi, and Karin Pfeiffer


Published energy cost data for children and adolescents are lacking. The purpose of this study was to measure and describe developmental trends in the energy cost of 12 physical activities commonly performed by youth.


A mixed age cohort of 209 participants completed 12 standardized activity trials on 4 occasions over a 3-year period (baseline, 12-months, 24-months, and 36-months) while wearing a portable indirect calorimeter. Bayesian hierarchical regression was used to link growth curves from each age cohort into a single curve describing developmental trends in energy cost from age 6 to 18 years.


For sedentary and light-intensity household chores, YOUTH METs (METy) remained stable or declined with age. In contrast, METy values associated with brisk walking, running, basketball, and dance increased with age.


The reported energy costs for specific activities will contribute to efforts to update and expand the youth compendium.