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Shinichi Demura, Masaki Minami, Yoshinori Nagasawa, Nobuhiko Tada, Jinzaburo Matsuzawa and Susumu Sato

This cross-sectional study determined physical-fitness levels of more than 1,000 Japanese older men and women, including 338 participants who were 75 years of age and older. Each participant performed 11 tests representing 4 domains of functioning (muscular, joint, neural, and respiratory). Two-way ANOVA was used to examine gender and age differences for each variable. Performance on every test decreased with advancing age, but the declines did not occur at a uniform rate. In addition, men and women did not decline at the same rate for each variable. Although leg strength, balance ability, and reaction time did not decline until after the age of 65, they exhibited the steepest decline of all the variables after age 75. These findings suggest that significant declines in physical fitness occur with advancing age, especially those that are related to mobility and risk for falls.

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James M. Green, Phil A. Bishop, Ian H. Muir and Richard G. Lomax

Sweat lactate is at least partly derived from eccrine-gland metabolism. This study examined whether potential age-associated changes in sweat rate and skin blood flow influence sweat lactate. Six middle-aged (51.5 ± 3.8 years) and 6 younger (25.8 ± 1.5 years) men similar in VO2max, height, weight, percent body fat, and surface area completed constant-load (CON) cycling and interval-cycling (INT) trials. During each trial, sweat and blood were analyzed for lactate concentration at 15, 25, 35, 45, and 60 min. Sweat rates and estimated total lactate secretion were not significantly different (p > .05) between trials or groups. Blood-lactate concentrations were not significantly different between groups during CON but were significantly higher in younger men at 35 min and 45 min during INT. Sweat-lactate concentrations were not significantly different (p > .05) between groups during CON or INT. These results suggest that differences in eccrine-gland metabolism between young and middle-aged men are minimal.

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Debra J. Rose

Despite the significant increase in years that an individual can now expect to live in the 21st century, there is growing evidence that the price for greater longevity may be worsening health due to the higher prevalence of nonfatal but disabling conditions. This sobering news suggests the need for expanded scientific inquiry directed at understanding the multilevel factors that promote or prevent physical activity (PA) participation and the adoption of healthy lifestyle behaviors and the types of intervention strategies that will be most effective in positively changing behavior at different life stages. Fruitful areas of future scientific inquiry include exploring other types and intensities of PA aimed at increasing PA participation while reducing sedentary behavior, better understanding the role of the physical and social environment in promoting PA participation, and designing and evaluating multilevel PA interventions that are better tailored to the activity preferences, goals, and expectations of a diverse older adult population, and flexibly delivered in real-world settings. Finally, conducting research aimed at better differentiating normal age-associated changes from those that are disease-related will be fundamental to reversing the negative stereotypes that currently shape the public’s view of the aging process.

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Stamatis Agiovlasitis, Jooyeon Jin and Joonkoo Yun

; Spirduso et al., 2005 ). However, a decline in BMI and weight late in adulthood may be due to disease, age-associated changes in fat-free mass, or unintentional weight loss ( Spirduso et al., 2005 ); these factors may increase the risks for mortality, morbidity, and functional limitations ( Chen et

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Takashi Abe, Jeremy P. Loenneke, Robert S. Thiebaud and Mark Loftin

. 1999 ; 281 : 558 – 560 . PubMed ID: 10022113 doi:10.1001/jama.281.6.558 10.1001/jama.281.6.558 10022113 5. Lauretani F , Russo CR , Bandinelli S , et al . Age-associated changes in skeletal muscle and their effect on mobility: an operational diagnosis of sarcopenia . J Appl Physiol . 2003

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John F.T. Fernandes, Kevin L. Lamb, Jonathan P. Norris, Jason Moran, Benjamin Drury, Nattai R. Borges and Craig Twist

-related declines in athletic performance ( Baker & Tang, 2010 ; Pantoja, Saez De Villarreal, Brisswalter, Peyré-Tartaruga, & Morin, 2016 ). Resistance training provides a potent method of offsetting these age-associated changes ( Bottaro, Machado, Nogueira, Scales, & Veloso, 2007 ; Kongsgaard, Backer, Jørgensen

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Tyler J. Noble and Robert F. Chapman

, swimming, baseball, tennis, and golf . J Gerontol . 1988 ; 43 : 113 – 120 . PubMed doi:10.1093/geronj/43.5.P113 10.1093/geronj/43.5.P113 19. Tanaka H , Seals DR . Endurance exercise performance in masters athletes: age-associated changes and underlying physiological mechanisms . J Physiol . 2008

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Thomas Cattagni, Vincent Gremeaux and Romuald Lepers

. Endurance exercise performance in Masters athletes: age-associated changes and underlying physiological mechanisms . J Physiol . 2008 ; 586 ( 1 ): 55 – 63 . PubMed ID: 17717011 doi:10.1113/jphysiol.2007.141879 17717011 10.1113/jphysiol.2007.141879 2. Webb JL , Urner SC , McDaniels J

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Sandra C. Webber, Francine Hahn, Lisa M. Lix, Brenda J. Tittlemier, Nancy M. Salbach and Ruth Barclay

Gerontology, Series A: Biological Sciences & Medical Sciences, 71 ( 8 ), 1039 – 1048 . PubMed ID: 26957472 doi:10.1093/gerona/glw026 10.1093/gerona/glw026 Shimada , H. , Kim , H. , Yoshida , H. , Suzukawa , M. , Makizako , H. , Yoshida , Y. , … Suzuki , T. ( 2010 ). Relationship between age-associated

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Tomohiro Yasuda

men . Med Sci Sports Exerc . 1994 ; 26 : 235 – 240 . PubMed ID: 8164542 doi:10.1249/00005768-199402000-00015 8164542 10.1249/00005768-199402000-00015 27. Lauretani F , Russo CR , Bandinelli S , et al . Age-associated changes in skeletal muscles and their effect on mobility: an