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Matthew R. Hodler and Maureen Smith

to swimming pools in the post-WWII era, increased attention to the Olympic competition during the Cold War, or any other number of reasons. However, at the time, leading swimming luminaries pointed to the increase in national Age Group swimming participation levels, which grew by more than tenfold

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Maureen M. Smith

This article provides a historical overview of the practice of early sport specialization, primarily in the United States. Sport specialization as practiced by young athletes has been a common occurrence in several individual sports for more than 60 years. More recently, focusing on one sport has gained traction as common practice for young athletes involved in team sports. Sport specialization as a topic of research inquiry has been examined by various disciplines in kinesiology to determine the efficacy of the practice, the physiological effects, and the advantages and disadvantages, as well as to offer possible solutions to the drawbacks associated with sport specialization. Popular press outlets, including newspapers, books, magazines, and online sources, have also joined the debate over the merits of sport specialization.

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Ana F. Silva, Pedro Figueiredo, João Ribeiro, Francisco Alves, João Paulo Vilas-Boas, Ludovic Seifert, and Ricardo J. Fernandes

. , & Illescas , C. ( 1994 ). Physiologic considerations in age group swimming . In M. Miyashita , Y. Mutoh , & A.B. Richardson (Eds.), Medicine and science in aquatic sports (pp.  199 – 205 ). Basel, Switzerland : Karger . Chollet , D. , Chalies , S. , & Chatard , J.C. ( 2000 ). A new

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Shaun Abbott, Goshi Yamauchi, Mark Halaki, Marcela Torres Castiglioni, James Salter, and Stephen Cobley

. 21 Furthermore, arm propelling efficiency values shown in the current study align with previous studies in age-group swimmers. 22 Considered together, findings provide valuable implications for evaluating performance development across and within age-group swimming. For example, differences in youth

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Kosuke Kojima, Christopher L. Brammer, Tyler D. Sossong, Takashi Abe, and Joel M. Stager

swimmers remains to be determined. As there is a tendency for training paradigms to rapidly trickle down from the elite, collegiate swimming programs, it is not surprising to find that RST is becoming increasingly common in age-group swimming programs. However, because of the limited data regarding the

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J.D. DeFreese, Travis E. Dorsch, and Travis A. Flitton

.), Handbook of sport psychology ( 3rd ed. , pp.  621 – 641 ). Hoboken, NJ : Wiley . Eynon , R. , Kitchen , P. , & Semotiuk , D. ( 1980 ). The economics of age-group swimming in Ontario . Canadian Journal of Applied Sport Sciences, 5 , 132 – 136 . Fredricks , J.A. , & Eccles , J.S. ( 2004

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Peter Olusoga, Marte Bentzen, and Goran Kentta

coaches could display one of three commitment profiles (attraction, entrapment, or low commitment) based on the theoretical determinants of commitment (i.e., costs and benefits, satisfaction and attractive alternatives, investments, and social constraints). In their study with 295 age-group swimming

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Bettina Callary, Scott Rathwell, and Bradley W. Young

good base coming from age group swimming, but he helped me from the perspective of the cycle that a MA goes through in terms of recovery. I did not have specific training for MAs when I started coaching them and I was still young enough that I didn’t necessarily have a good appreciation for the