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Damiano Formenti, Luca Cavaggioni, Marco Duca, Athos Trecroci, Mattia Rapelli, Giampietro Alberti, John Komar and Pierpaolo Iodice

, perceptual speed, and simple reaction time would be enhanced similarly by both aerobic activity and balance activity when compared with preexercise task performance. Methods Participants A total of 20 healthy middle-age adults were recruited from a fitness center and voluntarily participated in this study

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Casey Jordan Mace, Ralph Maddison, Timothy Olds and Ngaire Kerse

Background:

The Multimedia Activity Recall for Children and Adults (MARCA) is a computerized recall instrument that records use of time during 24 hr the previous day and has been developed to address limitations of current self-report physical activity measures for those in advanced age.

Methods:

Test–retest reliability and convergent validity of the adult MARCA were assessed in a sample of 45 advanced-age adults (age 84.9 SD ± 1.62 yr) as a subsample of the Life and Living in Advanced-Age Cohort Study New Zealand (LiLACS NZ). Test–retest methods required participants to recall the previous day’s activity using the MARCA twice within the same day. Convergent validity was assessed against accelerometry.

Results:

Test–retest reliability was high, with ICCs greater than .99 for moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and physical activity level (PAL). Compared with accelerometry, the MARCA demonstrated validity comparable to other self-report instruments with Spearman’s coefficients of .34 and .59 for time spent in nonsedentary physical activity and PAL.

Conclusion:

The MARCA is a valid and reliable self-report tool for physical activity behaviors in advanced-age adults.

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Hiroko Shimura, Takemi Sugiyama, Elisabeth Winkler and Neville Owen

Background:

Neighborhood walkability shows significant positive relationship with residents’ walking for transport in cross-sectional studies. We examined prospective relationships of neighborhood walkability with the change in walking behaviors over 4 years among middle-to-older aged adults (50–65 years) residing in Adelaide, Australia.

Methods:

A baseline survey was conducted during 2003–2004, and a follow-up survey during 2007–2008. Walking for transport and walking for recreation were assessed at both times among 504 adults aged 50–65 years living in objectively determined high- and low-walkable neighborhoods. Multilevel linear regression analyses examined the associations of neighborhood walkability with changes over 4 years in walking for transport and walking for recreation.

Results:

On average, participants decreased their time spent in walking for transport (–4.1 min/day) and for recreation (–3.7 min/day) between the baseline and 4-year follow-up. However, those living in high-walkable neighborhoods showed significantly smaller reduction (adjusted mean change: –1.1 min/day) in their time spent in walking for transport than did those living in low-walkable neighborhoods (–6.7 min/day). No such statistically-significant differences were found with the changes in walking for recreation.

Conclusions:

High-walkable neighborhoods may help middle-to-older aged adults to maintain their walking for transport.

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Katherine R. Saul, Meghan E. Vidt, Garry E. Gold and Wendy M. Murray

Our purpose was to characterize shoulder muscle volume and isometric moment, as well as their relationship, for healthy middle-aged adults. Muscle volume and maximum isometric joint moment were assessed for 6 functional muscle groups of the shoulder, elbow, and wrist in 10 middle-aged adults (46–60 y, 5M, 5F). Compared with young adults, shoulder abductors composed a smaller percentage of total muscle volume (P = .0009) and there was a reduction in shoulder adductor strength relative to elbow flexors (P = .012). We observed a consistent ordering of moment-generating capacity among functional groups across subjects. Although total muscle volume spanned a 2.3-fold range, muscle volume was distributed among functional groups in a consistent manner across subjects. On average, 72% of the variation in joint moment could be explained by the corresponding functional group muscle volume. These data are useful for improved modeling of upper limb musculoskeletal performance in middle-aged subjects, and may improve computational predictions of function for this group.

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Yu-Kai Chang, I-Hua Chu, Feng-Tzu Chen and Chun-Chih Wang

The present research attempts to evaluate the dose-response relationship between acute resistance exercise and planning. Seventeen participants performed the Tower of London (TOL) in control condition and three different exercise intensity conditions (40%, 70%, and 100% 10-repetition maximal) in a counterbalanced order. The results revealed positive effects of an acute bout of resistance exercise on the TOL. Specifically, a curvilinear trend was observed between exercise intensity and TOL scores that measured performances of “correct” and “move,” where moderate intensity demonstrated the most optimal performance compared with the other conditions. None of these differences were found in TOL scores that measure performances of “violation” and “planning speed.” These results suggest that acute moderate intensity resistance exercise could facilitate planning-related executive functions in middle-aged adults.

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Tanya R. Berry, Wendy M. Rodgers, Alison Divine and Craig Hall

reduced risk of chronic diseases ( Colley et al., 2011 ). Yet, it is in this age range that rates of chronic disease start to increase ( Public Health Agency of Canada, 2016 ). Therefore, health is often promoted as a reason to be active and is a commonly cited motive to be active in middle-aged adults

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Hiroko Shimura, Elisabeth Winkler and Neville Owen

Background:

We examined associations of individual, psychosocial and environmental characteristics with 4-year changes in walking among middle-to-older aged adults; few such studies have employed prospective designs.

Methods:

Walking for transport and walking for recreation were assessed during 2003–2004 (baseline) and 2007–2008 (follow-up) among 445 adults aged 50–65 years residing in Adelaide, Australia. Logistic regression analyses examined predictors of being in the highest quintile of decline in walking (21.4 minutes/day or more reduction in walking for transport; 18.6 minutes/day or more reduction in walking for recreation).

Results:

Declines in walking for transport were related to higher level of walking at baseline, low perceived benefits of activity, low family social support, a medium level of social interaction, low sense of community, and higher neighborhood walkability. Declines in walking for recreation were related to higher level of walking at baseline, low self-efficacy for activity, low family social support, and a medium level of available walking facilities.

Conclusions:

Declines in middle-to-older aged adults’ walking for transport and walking for recreation have differing personal, psychosocial and built-environment correlates, for which particular preventive strategies may be developed. Targeted campaigns, community-based programs, and environmental and policy initiatives can be informed by these findings.

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Denise M. Jones, Harvi F. Hart, Kay M. Crossley, Ilana N. Ackerman and Joanne L. Kemp

count and activity minutes undertaken by healthy young to middle-aged adults in a free-living environment. Secondary aims were to evaluate the number of days of step count data retrieved from the two grades of device over a two-week period and report relative output of step count for the two grades of

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Ruth E. Taylor-Piliae, Kathryn A. Newell, Rise Cherin, Martin J. Lee, Abby C. King and William L. Haskell

Objective:

To compare the effects of Tai Chi (TC, n = 37) and Western exercise (WE, n = 39) with an attention-control group (C, n = 56) on physical and cognitive functioning in healthy adults age 69 ± 5.8 yr, in a 2-phase randomized trial.

Methods:

TC and WE involved combined class and home-based protocols. Physical functioning included balance, strength, flexibility, and cardiorespiratory endurance. Cognitive functioning included semantic fluency and digit-span tests. Data were analyzed using intention-to-treat analysis.

Results:

At 6 mo, WE had greater improvements in upper body flexibility (F = 4.67, p = .01) than TC and C. TC had greater improvements in balance (F = 3.36, p = .04) and a cognitive-function measure (F = 7.75, p < .001) than WE and C. The differential cognitive-function improvements observed in TC were maintained through 12 mo.

Conclusion:

The TC and WE interventions resulted in differential improvements in physical functioning among generally healthy older adults. TC led to improvement in an indicator of cognitive functioning that was maintained through 12 mo.

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James Annesi

Background:

Behavioral interventions for weight-loss have been largely unsuccessful. Exercise is the strongest predictor of maintained weight loss and much of its effects may be from associated changes in psychosocial factors.

Methods:

Middle-aged, formerly sedentary adults with severe obesity were randomly selected to 6-month treatments of cognitive-behavioral exercise support paired with either standard nutrition education (n = 99) or nutrition change supported by cognitive-behavioral means with an emphasis on self-regulation (n = 101).

Results:

Overall improvements in self-efficacy and self-regulation for both exercise and managed eating, and mood, were found, with significantly greater improvements associated with the cognitive-behavioral nutrition condition in self-regulation for eating and mood. Change scores trended toward being stronger predictors of increased exercise and fruit and vegetable intake than scores at treatment end. Multiple regression analyses indicated that significant portions of the variance in both increased volume of exercise (R 2 = 0.45) and fruit and vegetable intake (R 2 = 0.21) were explained by changes in self-regulatory skill usage, self-efficacy, and mood.

Conclusions:

Cognitive-behavioral methods for improved eating paired with behavioral support of exercise may improve weight loss through effects on the psychosocial factors of self-regulation, self-efficacy, and overall mood more than when standard nutrition education is incorporated.