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Theresa E. Gildner, J. Josh Snodgrass, Clare Evans and Paul Kowal

Health Organization (WHO) study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) Wave 1 ( Kowal et al., 2012 ). Nationally representative data were drawn from six LMICs (China, Ghana, India, Mexico, the Russian Federation, and South Africa) to examine these relations in several distinct populations, a unique

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Amy E. Burton, Louise Clancy and Lisa Cowap

physical activity in the relationship between self-perceptions of ageing and self-rated health in older adults . Psychology and Health, 30 ( 6 ), 671 – 685 . PubMed doi:10.1080/08870446.2015.1014370 10.1080/08870446.2015.1014370 Braun , V. , & Clarke , V. ( 2013 ). Successful qualitative research

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Catrine Tudor-Locke, Anita M. Myers, C. Shanthi Jacob, Gareth Jones, Darien-Alexis Lazowski and Nancy A. Ecclestone

The Home Support Exercise Program (HSEP) was developed to reach frail community seniors through home support workers (HSWs) rather than more costly health care professionals such as visiting nurses or physical therapists. This article describes the development and formative evaluation of the HSEP prototype, including the training of case managers and HSWs. In the HSEP’s final form, each client is instructed on 10 simple, functional, and progressive exercises and given an illustrated booklet and a short video. Ongoing encouragement is provided by specifically trained HSWs during regular visits (at least once a week). Formative evaluation of the HSEP model was used to examine and resolve implementation and delivery issues. Qualitative data were collected through focus groups or interviews with each stakeholder group—administrators/coordinators, case managers, HSWs, agency supervisors, and clients themselves. Evaluation findings were used to modify training, instructional, and support materials and the exercises.

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Philipe de Souto Barreto, Anne-Marie Ferrandez and Bérengère Saliba-Serre

Background:

Participation bias in exercise studies is poorly understood among older adults. This study was aimed at looking into whether older persons who volunteer to participate in an exercise study differ from nonvolunteers.

Methods:

A self-reported questionnaire on physical activity and general health was mailed out to 1000 persons, aged 60 or over, who were covered by the medical insurance of the French National Education System. Among them, 535 answered it and sent it back. Two hundred and thirty-three persons (age 69.7 ±7.6, 65.7% women) said they would volunteer to participate in an exercise study and 270 (age 71.7 ±8.8, 62.2% women) did not.

Results:

Volunteers were younger and more educated than nonvolunteers, but they did not differ in sex. They had less physical function decline and higher volumes of physical activity than nonvolunteers. Compared with volunteers, nonvolunteers had a worse self-reported health and suffered more frequently from chronic pain. Multiple logistic regressions showed that good self-reported health, absence of chronic pain, and lower levels of physical function decline were associated with volunteering to participate in an exercise study.

Conclusions:

Volunteers were fitter and healthier than nonvolunteers. Therefore, caution must be taken when generalizing the results of exercise intervention studies.

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Yi-Ching Chen, I-Chen Lin, Yen-Ting Lin, Wei-Min Huang, Chien-Chun Huang and Ing-Shiou Hwang

This study contrasted the stochastic force component between young and older adults, who performed pursuit tracking/compensatory tracking by exerting in-phase/antiphase forces to match a sinusoidal target. Tracking force was decomposed into the force component containing the target frequency and the nontarget force fluctuations (stochastic component). Older adults with inferior task performance had higher complexity (entropy across time; p = .005) in total force. For older adults, task errors were negatively correlated with force fluctuation complexity (pursuit tracking: r = −.527 to −.551; compensatory tracking: r = −.626 to −.750). Notwithstanding an age-related increase in total force complexity (p = .004), older adults exhibited lower complexity of the stochastic force component than young adults did (low frequency: p = .017; high frequency: p = .035). Those older adults with a higher complexity of stochastic force had better task performance due to the underlying use of a richer gradation strategy to compensate for impaired oscillatory control.

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Elissa Burton, Kaela Farrier, Gill Lewin, Simone Pettigrew, Anne-Marie Hill, Phil Airey, Liz Bainbridge and Keith D. Hill

Regular participation in resistance training is important for older people to maintain their health and independence, yet participation rates are low. The study aimed to identify motivators and barriers to older people participating in resistance training. A systematic review was conducted including quantitative, qualitative, and mixed-method studies. Searches generated 15,920 citations from six databases, with 14 studies (n = 1,937 participants) included. In total, 92 motivators and 24 barriers were identified. Motivators specific to participating in resistance training included preventing deterioration (disability), reducing risk of falls, building (toning) muscles, feeling more alert, and better concentration. Looking too muscular and thinking participation increased the risk of having a heart attack, stroke, or death, despite the minimal likelihood of these occurring, were barriers. The analysis indicates that increasing participation in resistance training among older people should focus on the specific benefits valued by older people and the dissemination of accurate information to counter misperceptions.

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Mark Ward, Sarah Gibney, David O’Callaghan and Sinead Shannon

physical environments for healthy aging, including enabling and sustaining physical activity. This conceptual framework has also informed recent public policy regarding population aging in Ireland, with both the National Positive Ageing Strategy ( Department of Health & Department of Transport, Tourism and

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Davy Vancampfort, Brendon Stubbs, Mats Hallgren, Andreas Lundin, James Mugisha and Ai Koyanagi

literature, we aimed to assess PA correlates among community-dwelling middle-aged and older adults meeting the NIAAA criteria for hazardous drinking in six LMICs. Methods The Survey We analyzed data from the first wave of the Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health, which are publically available through the

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Lauren M. Robins, Ted Brown, Aislinn F. Lalor, Rene Stolwyk, Fiona McDermott and Terry Haines

capacity has been measured based on items used in the 2009 Australian Survey of Disability, Ageing and Carers Household Survey (SDAC), conducted by the Australian Bureau of Statistics ( 2011 ). The items requested participants’ to self-rate their ability to 1) climb stairs without a handrail or assistance

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Nancy A. Ecclestone, Anita M. Myers and Donald H. Paterson

The Centre for Activity and Ageing offers multiple physical activity programs for the general public of older adults. Using a database of 670 registrants, we tracked 541 individuals in 12 programs at the same location over a 3-year period (1992-1995). We found program differences in gender and age mix, attendance patterns, and long-term adherence. Overall, we found a 68% attendance rate and adherence rates of 59%, 51%, and 43% at 6 months, 12 months, and 36 months, respectively. About 21% of participants tried out or transferred between programs during the tracking period, and these individuals were significantly more likely to remain at the center over 3 years. Longitudinal tracking demonstrates that program adherence is not necessarily the same as exercise adherence: older adults leave, rejoin, and switch exercise classes as their commitments and interests change. We project that 50% or more of older adults joining community programs will be long-term adherents to exercise.