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Theresa E. Gildner, J. Josh Snodgrass, Clare Evans, and Paul Kowal

Health Organization (WHO) study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) Wave 1 ( Kowal et al., 2012 ). Nationally representative data were drawn from six LMICs (China, Ghana, India, Mexico, the Russian Federation, and South Africa) to examine these relations in several distinct populations, a unique

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Ilona I. McMullan, Brendan P. Bunting, Annette Burns, Lee Smith, Connor Cunningham, Roger O’Sullivan, Nicole E. Blackburn, Jason J. Wilson, and Mark A. Tully

adults (65+; Victor et al. 2002 ), whereas 34% of those aged 52 and over in England reported that they are “sometimes” (25%) or “often”(9%) lonely, based on the 2009–2010 data from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing ( Beaumont, 2013 ). Older adults may be more at risk of loneliness or social

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Ilona I. McMullan, Brendan P. Bunting, Lee Smith, Ai Koyanagi, and Mark A. Tully

self-rated vision over a 6-year period in older adults? and (c) what are the key risk factors for self-reported PA and self-reported vision over a 6-year period? Methods Participants The Irish Longitudinal study of Ageing (TILDA) is an ongoing cohort study of aging that includes community

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Abby Haynes, Catherine Sherrington, Geraldine Wallbank, David Lester, Allison Tong, Dafna Merom, Chris Rissel, and Anne Tiedemann

required to improve intervention uptake and effectiveness ( Devereux-Fitzgerald et al., 2016 ; Taylor & Pescatello, 2016 ). The Intervention: Coaching for Healthy Ageing The Coaching for Healthy Ageing (CHAnGE) trial is a cluster-randomized controlled study that aims to test the effectiveness and cost

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Amy E. Burton, Louise Clancy, and Lisa Cowap

physical activity in the relationship between self-perceptions of ageing and self-rated health in older adults . Psychology and Health, 30 ( 6 ), 671 – 685 . PubMed doi:10.1080/08870446.2015.1014370 10.1080/08870446.2015.1014370 Braun , V. , & Clarke , V. ( 2013 ). Successful qualitative research

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Catrine Tudor-Locke, Anita M. Myers, C. Shanthi Jacob, Gareth Jones, Darien-Alexis Lazowski, and Nancy A. Ecclestone

The Home Support Exercise Program (HSEP) was developed to reach frail community seniors through home support workers (HSWs) rather than more costly health care professionals such as visiting nurses or physical therapists. This article describes the development and formative evaluation of the HSEP prototype, including the training of case managers and HSWs. In the HSEP’s final form, each client is instructed on 10 simple, functional, and progressive exercises and given an illustrated booklet and a short video. Ongoing encouragement is provided by specifically trained HSWs during regular visits (at least once a week). Formative evaluation of the HSEP model was used to examine and resolve implementation and delivery issues. Qualitative data were collected through focus groups or interviews with each stakeholder group—administrators/coordinators, case managers, HSWs, agency supervisors, and clients themselves. Evaluation findings were used to modify training, instructional, and support materials and the exercises.

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Yi-Ching Chen, I-Chen Lin, Yen-Ting Lin, Wei-Min Huang, Chien-Chun Huang, and Ing-Shiou Hwang

This study contrasted the stochastic force component between young and older adults, who performed pursuit tracking/compensatory tracking by exerting in-phase/antiphase forces to match a sinusoidal target. Tracking force was decomposed into the force component containing the target frequency and the nontarget force fluctuations (stochastic component). Older adults with inferior task performance had higher complexity (entropy across time; p = .005) in total force. For older adults, task errors were negatively correlated with force fluctuation complexity (pursuit tracking: r = −.527 to −.551; compensatory tracking: r = −.626 to −.750). Notwithstanding an age-related increase in total force complexity (p = .004), older adults exhibited lower complexity of the stochastic force component than young adults did (low frequency: p = .017; high frequency: p = .035). Those older adults with a higher complexity of stochastic force had better task performance due to the underlying use of a richer gradation strategy to compensate for impaired oscillatory control.

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Philipe de Souto Barreto, Anne-Marie Ferrandez, and Bérengère Saliba-Serre

Background:

Participation bias in exercise studies is poorly understood among older adults. This study was aimed at looking into whether older persons who volunteer to participate in an exercise study differ from nonvolunteers.

Methods:

A self-reported questionnaire on physical activity and general health was mailed out to 1000 persons, aged 60 or over, who were covered by the medical insurance of the French National Education System. Among them, 535 answered it and sent it back. Two hundred and thirty-three persons (age 69.7 ±7.6, 65.7% women) said they would volunteer to participate in an exercise study and 270 (age 71.7 ±8.8, 62.2% women) did not.

Results:

Volunteers were younger and more educated than nonvolunteers, but they did not differ in sex. They had less physical function decline and higher volumes of physical activity than nonvolunteers. Compared with volunteers, nonvolunteers had a worse self-reported health and suffered more frequently from chronic pain. Multiple logistic regressions showed that good self-reported health, absence of chronic pain, and lower levels of physical function decline were associated with volunteering to participate in an exercise study.

Conclusions:

Volunteers were fitter and healthier than nonvolunteers. Therefore, caution must be taken when generalizing the results of exercise intervention studies.

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Elissa Burton, Kaela Farrier, Gill Lewin, Simone Pettigrew, Anne-Marie Hill, Phil Airey, Liz Bainbridge, and Keith D. Hill

Regular participation in resistance training is important for older people to maintain their health and independence, yet participation rates are low. The study aimed to identify motivators and barriers to older people participating in resistance training. A systematic review was conducted including quantitative, qualitative, and mixed-method studies. Searches generated 15,920 citations from six databases, with 14 studies (n = 1,937 participants) included. In total, 92 motivators and 24 barriers were identified. Motivators specific to participating in resistance training included preventing deterioration (disability), reducing risk of falls, building (toning) muscles, feeling more alert, and better concentration. Looking too muscular and thinking participation increased the risk of having a heart attack, stroke, or death, despite the minimal likelihood of these occurring, were barriers. The analysis indicates that increasing participation in resistance training among older people should focus on the specific benefits valued by older people and the dissemination of accurate information to counter misperceptions.

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Mark Ward, Sarah Gibney, David O’Callaghan, and Sinead Shannon

physical environments for healthy aging, including enabling and sustaining physical activity. This conceptual framework has also informed recent public policy regarding population aging in Ireland, with both the National Positive Ageing Strategy ( Department of Health & Department of Transport, Tourism and