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Larry Lauer and Craig Paiement

The Playing Tough and Clean Hockey Program was developed to teach youth hockey players ages 12 and older to play within the rules and enhance their ability to respond positively to their negative emotions (i.e., through emotional toughness). Hockey players were taught cognitive and emotional skills within a 3 R’s routine to decrease aggressive acts. Three youth ice hockey players identified as frequently exhibiting aggressive behaviors participated in 10 sessions. A single-subject design was used to analyze participants’ aggressive behaviors as well as emotional toughness. Results reveal slight improvements in all participants, with the largest reductions in retaliatory and major aggressive acts. Several key implications for practice are provided including the use of routines and managing emotional responses.

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Maria Kavussanu and Christopher M. Spray

This study examined the network of relationships among moral atmosphere, perceived performance motivational climate, and moral functioning of male youth football players. Participants were 325 footballers recruited from 24 teams of a youth football league. They responded to scenarios describing cheating and aggressive behaviors likely to occur during a football game by indicating their moral judgment, intention, and behavior, which represented moral functioning. The moral atmosphere of the team and participants’ perceptions of the team’s performance motivational climate were also measured. Structural equation modeling indicated that perceptions of an atmosphere condoning cheating and aggressive behaviors were associated with views that a performance motivational climate is salient in the team, while both moral atmosphere and perceived performance climate corresponded to low levels of moral functioning in football. The findings are discussed in terms of their implications for eliminating unsportsmanlike conduct from sport.

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John G.H. Dunn and Janice Causgrove Dunn

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between goal orientations, perceptions of athletic aggression, and sportspersonship among elite male youth ice hockey players (M age = 13.08 years). Athletes (N = 171) completed questionnaires to assess their goal orientations, attitudes toward directing aggressive behaviors during competition, and non-aggression-related sportspersonship. In accordance with Vallerand, Deshaies, Cuerrier, Brière, and Pelletier (1996), sportspersonship was conceptualized as a five-dimensional construct. Multiple regression analyses revealed that high ego-oriented athletes were more inclined to approve of aggressive behaviors than those with low ego orientation. Players with higher levels of task orientation (rather than low task orientation) had higher sportspersonship levels on three dimensions. An analysis of goal orientation patterns revealed that regardless of ego orientation, low (compared to high) task orientation was more motivationally detrimental to several sportspersonship dimensions. The practical implications of these results are discussed in the context of Nicholls’s (1989) achievement goal theory.

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Amanda Visek and Jack Watson

The purpose of this investigation was to examine male ice hockey players’ (N = 85) perceived legitimacy of aggression and professionalization of attitudes across developmental age and competitive level. Findings were analyzed within the complementary conceptual frameworks of social learning theory, professionalization of attitudes, and moral reasoning. Ice hockey players completed a modified, sport-specific version of the Sport Behavior Inventory and a modified version of the Context Modified Webb scale. Results of the investigation revealed that as players increased in age and competitive level, perceived legitimacy of aggressive behavior increased, and their attitudes about sport became increasingly professionalized. Based on the conceptual framework in which the results are interpreted, intervention services by sport psychology practitioners are explored that are aimed at the athlete, the organization, and influential others.

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John Kerr

aggressive behavior and is of only limited relevance to the study of aggression in sport ( Kerr, 2005 ). The traditional view does not take into account sports in which physical aggression plays an integral part. Certain sport activities provide a unique environment in which a special set of conditions

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Paul A. Davis, Louise Davis, Samuel Wills, Ralph Appleby and Arne Nieuwenhuys

of categories from each of the interview transcripts ( Hsieh & Shannon, 2005 ). This method was deemed appropriate as it allowed specific contextual experiences to be identified (e.g., response strategies used by batsmen after aggressive behavior from the bowler). The first stage of the coding

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Mariya A. Yukhymenko-Lescroart

). doi:10.1123/iscj.2018-0029 10.1123/iscj.2018-0029 Silva , J.M. ( 1980 ). Understanding aggressive behavior and its effects upon athletic performance . In W.F. Straub (Ed.), Sport psychology: An analysis of athlete behavior ( 2nd ed. , pp.  177 – 186 ). Ithaca, NY : Mouvement . United States

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Benjamin G. Serpell, Barry G. Horgan, Carmen M.E. Colomer, Byron Field, Shona L. Halson and Christian J. Cook

assertiveness and cognitive processing, enhancing decision making and skill execution. 12 Testosterone may be regulated by glucocorticoid hormones, such as cortisol, and vice versa. 12 Cortisol, generally considered a “stress” hormone, in a sporting context may be arousing and can lead to increased aggressive

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Sebastian Altfeld, Paul Schaffran, Jens Kleinert and Michael Kellmann

preserve productivity Consumption of sleep-inducing or pain-reducing drugs Social Reduced interest in social activities Impression of being used by others (e.g., colleagues or employer) Aggressive behavior Reduced empathy regarding others (reduced capability to listen to others) Depersonalisation Note

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Nicholas Stanger, Ryan Chettle, Jessica Whittle and Jamie Poolton

. Specifically, anger is a high-arousal emotion that represents a response to an event that is perceived as a demeaning offense against me or mine ( Lazarus, 2000 ). Anger can result in aggressive behavior, particularly if accompanied by intentions to harm another person or after provocation (e.g., Isberg, 2000