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Javad Sarvestan and Zdeněk Svoboda

toward the knee. Thereafter, another short Y-tape was applied from the back of the heel to cover the lateral ankle, with one tail placed on the thumb and another wrapped around the ankle. 4 , 22 , 23 Marker Placement This study is part of a broader work on agility drills. Sixteen passive markers (14 mm

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Michael E. Hales and John D. Johnson II

Purpose: To investigate different sport-field properties’ influence on muscle-recruitment patterns and metabolic response during a series of running and agility drills. Methods: Eleven male athletes were fitted with a standard multipurpose training shoe. The test protocol consisting of 4 high-intensity trials with 60-s rests between trials performed on 2 fields with different properties. Time-dependent field properties were measured using the American Standards for Testing and Materials protocol (F-1936). A 30-m pretest and posttest sprint determined fatigue and player performance. Electromyography (EMG) recorded muscle activity for vastus medialis, biceps femoris, gastrocnemius medial head, and tibialis anterior, and metabolic activity analyzed maximal oxygen consumption, heart rate, respiratory exchange ratio, metabolic equivalent, and energy expenditure. Results: A difference was calculated for muscle activity across trials (P = .01) for both surfaces. Muscle activity was <13% on the field with less energy return (P = .01). Metabolic components (maximal oxygen consumption, heart rate, respiratory exchange ratio, metabolic equivalent, and energy expenditure) were significantly different across trials (P = .01) but not significantly different between fields. The participants completed the agility course (5.2%) faster on the field with greater energy return, while caloric expenditure was similar between fields. Conclusions: The findings indicate that field mechanical properties influence muscle-activation patterns. The field demonstrating the greatest magnitude of energy return produces the lowest sprint and agility course times; however, performing on a field exhibiting unfamiliar mechanical properties could cause the athlete to produce atypical movement patterns that might contribute to overuse of the neuromuscular system.

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Martin Buchheit, Alberto Mendez-Villanueva, Marc Quod, Thomas Quesnel and Said Ahmaidi

Purpose:

The aim of the current study was to compare the effects of speed/agility (S/A) training with sprint interval training (SIT) on acceleration and repeated sprint ability (RSA) in well-trained male handball players.

Methods:

In addition to their normal training program, players performed either S/A (n = 7) or SIT (n = 7) training for 4 wk. Speed/agility sessions consisted of 3 to 4 series of 4 to 6 exercises (eg, agility drills, standing start and very short sprints, all of <5 s duration); each repetition and series was interspersed with 30 s and 3 min of passive recovery, respectively. Sprint interval training consisted of 3 to 5 repetitions of 30-s all-out shuttle sprints over 40 m, interspersed with 2 min of passive recovery. Pre- and posttests included a countermovement jump (CMJ), 10-m sprint (10m), RSA test and a graded intermittent aerobic test (30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test, VIFT).

Results:

S/A training produced a very likely greater improvement in 10-m sprint (+4.6%, 90% CL 1.2 to 7.8), best (+2.7%, 90% CL 0.1 to 5.2) and mean (+2.2%, 90% CL –0.2 to 4.5) RSA times than SIT (all effect sizes [ES] greater than 0.79). In contrast, SIT resulted in an almost certain greater improvement in VIFT compared with S/A (+5.2%, 90% CL 3.5 to 6.9, with ES = –0.83).

Conclusion:

In well-trained handball players, 4 wk of SIT is likely to have a moderate impact on intermittent endurance capacity only, whereas S/A training is likely to improve acceleration and repeated sprint performance.

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Blake D. McLean, Cloe Cummins, Greta Conlan, Grant Duthie and Aaron J. Coutts

required to accelerate forward 5 m, tackle/be tackled to the ground before standing, and retreat 5 m to the start position (see Figure  1 ). Tackles were completed at 10-second intervals throughout the 4-minute period. Figure 1 —Schematic of the team-sport activities. Running and agility drills were

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Chelsey Klimek, Christopher Ashbeck, Alexander J. Brook and Chris Durall

program included components of the ATAC, CrossFit, and RAW programs. ATAC consists of plyometrics, kettlebells/medicine balls, high-intensity water exercises, wrestling, ladder and cone agility drills, tire flipping, speed interval training, and cinderblock throwing. CrossFit consists of continuously

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Athanasios Chatzinikolaou, Konstantinos Michaloglou, Alexandra Avloniti, Diamanda Leontsini, Chariklia K. Deli, Dimitris Vlachopoulos, Luis Gracia-Marco, Sotirios Arsenis, Ioannis Athanailidis, Dimitrios Draganidis, Athanasios Z. Jamurtas, Craig A. Williams and Ioannis G. Fatouros

%–90% Reps: 6–3 Sets: 2 Rest: 120 s TS 2 Exercises:  • Barbell cleans plus 10- to 20-m sprints or agility drills  • Kettlebell snatch plus 10- to 20-m sprints or agility drills  • Box jumps plus 10-m agility drills Intensity: 20 kg/10 kg/20 cm Reps: 6–8 Sets: 3 Rest: 90–120 s Intensity: 30 kg/10 kg/30 cm

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Robyn F. Madden, Kelly A. Erdman, Jane Shearer, Lawrence L. Spriet, Reed Ferber, Ash T. Kolstad, Jessica L. Bigg, Alexander S.D. Gamble and Lauren C. Benson

agility drill only ( χ 2 [1] = 3.920, P  = .048) with a slower time during the caffeine intervention. There was a significant main effect of session for 3 tasks: with a faster time during the first session for 30-m forward sprint ( χ 2 [1]) = 4.647, P  = .031) and a faster time during the second session

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Sonia DelBusso and Michael Matheny

metatarsal-navicular joint. At 10 days, he began agility drills and sprinting without pain. At 15 days, he was completely pain free, returned to unrestricted soccer, and successfully completed the remaining 5 weeks of the season. In this case, surgical intervention provided the patient with the chance to

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Erica M. Willadsen, Andrea B. Zahn and Chris J. Durall

(stretching, strengthening, plyometric exercise, and sports-specific agility drills) to address proprioceptive and biomechanical deficits that are often seen in young female athletes. Mandelbaum et al 6 found that the PEP group sustained 4 ACL tears (0.13 incidence rate) at the 2-year follow-up, whereas the

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Mayur K. Ranchordas, George King, Mitchell Russell, Anthony Lynn and Mark Russell

acceleration sprints, and speed/agility drills) before testing in an indoor sports hall with a polished concrete floor. The order of the tests performed was the countermovement jump test, 20-m sprints, and Yo-Yo IR1; all completed within 30 min and 5-min passive recovery separated each test. Participants