Self-concept theory was used as a theoretical basis to investigate the utility of social norms alcohol prevention programs for college athletes. The predictive relationship among alcohol use and athletic identity, competitiveness, drinking game participation, and level of sport participation was investigated. Drinking game participation was found to be a significant predictor of total weekly alcohol use above and beyond the other predictors. In addition, organized recreational sport participation was a significant predictor of total binge-drinking episodes. It was demonstrated that individuals not currently participating in sports with an athletic identity in the same range as current athletes consumed alcohol at similar rates to current athletes, thus supporting athletic identity as an alternative way of classifying athlete status when studying alcohol consumption patterns. These results highlight the importance of drinking game participation in the alcohol use of college athletes and the validity of applying self-concept theory to alcohol prevention programs.
Jacob A. Jones
Melodie Fearnow-Kenney, David L. Wyrick, Jeffrey J. Milroy, Erin J. Reifsteck, Timothy Day, and Samantha E. Kelly
College athletes are at risk for heavy alcohol use, which jeopardizes their general health, academic standing, and athletic performance. Effective prevention programming reduces these risks by targeting theory-based intermediate factors that predict alcohol use while tailoring content to student-athletes. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of the myPlaybook online prevention program on student-athletes’ social norms, negative alcohol expectancies, and intentions to use alcohol-related harm prevention strategies. NCAA Division II student-athletes were recruited from 60 institutions across the United States to complete myPlaybook and pretest/posttest surveys measuring demographics and targeted outcome variables. Participants were randomly assigned to the treatment group (pretest-program-posttest; final n = 647) or the delayed treatment “control” group (pretest-posttest-program; final n = 709). Results revealed significant program effects on social norms (p < .01) and intentions to use harm prevention strategies (p < .01), while the effect on negative alcohol expectancies was nonsignificant (p = .14). Implications for future research and practice are discussed.
Dawn M. Emerson, Toni M. Torres-McGehee, Susan W. Yeargin, Kyle Dolan, and Kelcey K. deWeber
Sports Medicine’s fluid replacement statement, 2 discusses the effects caffeine and alcohol can have on hydration. Alcohol inhibits antidiuretic hormone (ADH), leading to increased urine production and hypohydration. 3 Alcohol use in college athletes is higher than the general student population and
Sarah Kelly and Michael Ireland
Sport sponsorship is a major marketing communications tool, with one source reporting a total of $62.8 billion spent globally on sport sponsorship in 2017 ( Statista, 2018 ). Alcohol has a strong financial and cultural connection as a sponsoring product category in many sports. For instance
Byron L. Zamboanga, Nathan T. Kearns, Janine V. Olthuis, Heidemarie Blumenthal, and Renee M. Cloutier
Drinking games participation is common among both adolescents and emerging adults, and has been linked to heavy alcohol use and negative alcohol-related consequences (for reviews, see Zamboanga et al., 2014 ; Zamboanga, Tomaso, et al., 2016 ). Research further suggests that particular motives for
Graig M. Chow, Matthew D. Bird, Stinne Soendergaard, and Yanyun Yang
Alcohol use represents an important mental health issue for student-athletes. Specifically, 77% of student-athletes consume alcohol and 42% engage in binge drinking (i.e., 4 or more drinks for women and 5 or more drinks for men; NCAA, 2018 ). As a result of alcohol use, student-athletes report
Diana M. Doumas and Nadine R. Mastroleo
Alcohol use represents a significant problem among high school students, with nearly 60% of students reporting alcohol use by the end of high school ( Johnston et al., 2019 ). National survey data indicate alcohol use escalates throughout high school, with the highest rates of drinking reported by
Janine V. Olthuis, Byron L. Zamboanga, Matthew P. Martens, and Lindsay S. Ham
Research has shown that college student-athletes are at increased risk for hazardous alcohol use. As such, this study examined social and cognitive influences on athletes’ alcohol consumption by exploring the association between injunctive norms (parental, teammate, and coach approval) and hazardous alcohol use among college athletes, and testing whether alcohol expectancy outcomes and valuations would mediate this association. College student-athletes (n = 301; mean age = 19.4, SD = 1.3) completed self-report questionnaires assessing their drinking behaviors and perceptions of alcohol use in their social environment. Structural equation modeling revealed, in all but one case, a direct association between each of the injunctive norms variables and hazardous alcohol use. In addition, negative expectancy valuations mediated the association between teammate approval and hazardous alcohol use. Injunctive norms emerged as an important factor in student-athletes’ alcohol use. Implications for alcohol intervention programming among student-athletes are discussed.
Sarah Jane Kelly, Michael Ireland, Frank Alpert, and John Mangan
An online survey was conducted to examine the alleged association between alcohol sponsorship of sports and alcohol consumption and attitudes toward sponsoring brands by Australian university sportspeople (i.e., university students representing their university in competitive sports; N = 501; 51% female). A third (33%) of participants reported receipt of alcohol industry sponsorship. Multiple regression analysis revealed an association between disordered consumption (i.e., alcohol abuse) and sportspeople’s receiving direct-to-user sponsorship in the form of product samples, volume club rebates, vouchers, or prizes. Positive attitudes toward alcohol sponsorship in sport correlated with dangerously excessive (i.e., acute) drinking. The evidence suggests that policy makers, sporting organizations, and universities should target specific sponsorships and consumption outcomes rather than considering an overall ban on alcohol industry sponsorship in sport. Results suggest that student-targeted policy and governance alternatives directed at team culture, attitudes toward alcohol, and more subtle forms of sponsorships (i.e., discounted product and vouchers) may be appropriate.
Alison B. Pritchard Orr, Kathy Keiver, Chris P. Bertram, and Sterling Clarren
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is an umbrella term used to describe the deficits resulting from prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). These deficits include a wide range of physical, cognitive, behavioral, and psychosocial problems that can severely impact an individual’s ability to function in