Research has shown that college student-athletes are at increased risk for hazardous alcohol use. As such, this study examined social and cognitive influences on athletes’ alcohol consumption by exploring the association between injunctive norms (parental, teammate, and coach approval) and hazardous alcohol use among college athletes, and testing whether alcohol expectancy outcomes and valuations would mediate this association. College student-athletes (n = 301; mean age = 19.4, SD = 1.3) completed self-report questionnaires assessing their drinking behaviors and perceptions of alcohol use in their social environment. Structural equation modeling revealed, in all but one case, a direct association between each of the injunctive norms variables and hazardous alcohol use. In addition, negative expectancy valuations mediated the association between teammate approval and hazardous alcohol use. Injunctive norms emerged as an important factor in student-athletes’ alcohol use. Implications for alcohol intervention programming among student-athletes are discussed.
Janine V. Olthuis, Byron L. Zamboanga, Matthew P. Martens, and Lindsay S. Ham
Siobhan K. Fitzpatrick and Janine V. Olthuis
true if we consider both general alcohol expectancies, drinking motives, and social norms and athlete-specific versions of these psychosocial risk factors (e.g., alcohol outcome expectancies related to sport performance, athlete-specific drinking motives, and perceptions of fellow athletes’ and coaches
Melodie Fearnow-Kenney, David L. Wyrick, Jeffrey J. Milroy, Erin J. Reifsteck, Timothy Day, and Samantha E. Kelly
College athletes are at risk for heavy alcohol use, which jeopardizes their general health, academic standing, and athletic performance. Effective prevention programming reduces these risks by targeting theory-based intermediate factors that predict alcohol use while tailoring content to student-athletes. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of the myPlaybook online prevention program on student-athletes’ social norms, negative alcohol expectancies, and intentions to use alcohol-related harm prevention strategies. NCAA Division II student-athletes were recruited from 60 institutions across the United States to complete myPlaybook and pretest/posttest surveys measuring demographics and targeted outcome variables. Participants were randomly assigned to the treatment group (pretest-program-posttest; final n = 647) or the delayed treatment “control” group (pretest-posttest-program; final n = 709). Results revealed significant program effects on social norms (p < .01) and intentions to use harm prevention strategies (p < .01), while the effect on negative alcohol expectancies was nonsignificant (p = .14). Implications for future research and practice are discussed.
Byron L. Zamboanga, Nathan T. Kearns, Janine V. Olthuis, Heidemarie Blumenthal, and Renee M. Cloutier
. Journal of Addictions Nursing, 27 ( 1 ), 24 – 31 . doi:10.1097/JAN.0000000000000108 10.1097/JAN.0000000000000108 Zamboanga , B.L. , Zhang , M. , Olthuis , J.V. , & Kim , S.Y. ( 2018 ). Understanding drinking game behaviors: A consideration of alcohol expectancies and motives to play and drink
Diana M. Doumas and Nadine R. Mastroleo
be interesting to examine the changes in perceptions of peer alcohol, including both typical student alcohol use and athlete-specific alcohol use, as mediators of intervention effects. Other potential mediators include alcohol-related cognitions (e.g., beliefs about alcohol and positive alcohol
Scott A. Graupensperger, Alex J. Benson, and M. Blair Evans
.1007/s40279-014-0240-4 Nunnally , J. , & Bernstein , I. ( 1994 ). Psychometric theory (Vol. 3). New York, NY : McGraw-Hill . Olthuis , J. , Zamboanga , B.L. , Marten , M.P. , & Ham , L.S. ( 2011 ). Social influences, alcohol expectancies, and hazardous alcohol use among college athletes