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Jennifer M. Medina McKeon, Craig R. Denegar and Jay Hertel

The purpose of this study was to formulate a predictive equation to discriminate males from females using static and dynamic lower extremity (LE) alignments. Twenty-four healthy adults volunteered to participate. Three-dimensional motion analysis was used to assess the kinematics of the right hip and knee during two functional tasks. Six measures of static LE alignment were also performed. Statistical comparisons were made between males and females for all variables. Static and dynamic variables that were significantly different by sex were entered into separate discriminant analyses for each task. The resulting equations were each able to correctly predict 87% of the subjects by sex. Fifty-eight percent and 55% of the variance was explained by sex for the vertical jump and plant & jump, respectively. The frontal plane hip angle was the best predictor of sex for both tasks. While there were statistically significant differences between the sexes for static measures of LE alignment, kinematic measures were better at discriminating between sexes.

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Hyunjae Jeon, Melanie L. McGrath, Neal Grandgenett and Adam B. Rosen

-bearing ability resulting from the failure of the collagen alignment or cross-link. 4 Thus, this pathological sequence has a significant impact on activities of daily living and the quality of life in patients presenting with symptoms of PT. The prolonged dysfunction associated with PT can result in a disruption

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Margaret T. Harris and Mike Metzler

recommendation within each guideline on the provided checklist. The specific guideline recommendations are provided in Table  1 and in the “ Results ” section of the paper. Table 1 OLPE Guideline Alignment Summary Yes No Partial Guideline 1: Student prerequisites       Students demonstrate competency in basic

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Akihiro Tamura, Kiyokazu Akasaka and Takahiro Otsudo

characteristic biomechanics in the lower-extremities of subjects who land in the knee valgus position. 17 , 18 To date, there has been no research into the influence of landing in knee valgus alignment, with lateral movement, on the energy absorption strategy in the lower-extremities. Therefore, we aimed to

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Figen Govsa, Gkionoul Nteli Chatzioglou, Simin Hepguler, Yelda Pinar and Ozden Bedre

to different patterns of compensation. It has also been suggested that abnormal pronation may contribute to patellofemoral joint dysfunction and production of pelvic misalignment while maintaining the standing positions. 9 Therefore, hyperpronated foot posture might influence the alignment of foot

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Glen M. Blenkinsop, Ying Liang, Nicholas J. Gallimore and Michael J. Hiley

takeaway (TA) was expressed as a percentage of the distance between the right and left foot centers and the distance on the y -axis from the point of mid-stance (Figure  3 ). The absolute distance between the foot centers was recorded for each shot. The alignment of the golfer at TA and BC was assessed

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Theresa M. Spitznagle and Shirley Sahrmann


Transient abdominal pain commonly occurs during running. There is limited information to guide the physical examination and treatment of individuals with this transient pain with running (TAPR). The purposes of this report are to describe the movement-system examination, diagnosis, and treatment of 2 female adolescent athletes with TAPR and highlight the differences in their treatment based on specific movement impairments.

Study Design:

Case series.


The movement diagnosis determined for both patients was thoracic flexion with rotation. The key signs and symptoms that supported this diagnosis included (1) alignment impairments of thoracic flexion and posterior sway and ribcage asymmetry; (2) movement impairments during testing and running of asymmetrical range of motion for trunk rotation, side bending, and flexion of the thoracic spine; and (3) reproduction of TAPR.


Musculoskeletal impairments related to the trunk muscles combined with the mechanical stresses of running could contribute to TAPR. Treatment in each of the patients was focused on patient education regarding correction of alignment, muscle, and movement impairments of the extremities, thoracic spine, and ribcage. A strategy was determined for correcting motion during running to reduce or abolish the TAPR. Outcomes were positive in both patients. Differences in specific impairments in each patient demonstrate the need for specificity of treatment. These 2 patients illustrate how developing a movement diagnosis and identifying the contributing factors based on a systematic examination can be used in individuals with TAPR.

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Jennifer E. Earl, Jay Hertel and Craig R. Denegar


Dynamic malalignment (DM), abnormal muscle activation, and static malalignments all might lead to patellofemoral pain (PFP) but have not been examined using a multifactorial approach.


To determine which measures of static malalignment, DM, and muscle-onset times best predict PFP.

Design and Setting:

Between-subjects, laboratory.


2 groups (PFP and uninjured) of 16 subjects each.


EMG and 3-D kinematic data were recorded during a step-down. Five static-alignment assessments were performed.


Three discriminant analyses using injury as the grouping variable and static measures, joint angles, and EMG onsets as the predictor variables. A final combined discriminant analysis using the most predictive variables from each set.


The static-alignment discriminant function was most predictive (81.3% correct), followed by the kinematic (69%) and the EMG (67%) functions. The final discriminant function included iliotibial-band flexibility, navicular drop, pronation, knee flexion, hip adduction, gluteus medius, and vastus medialis obliquus onset time and correctly classified 92.3% of PFP subjects.


PFP can most accurately be predicted when multiple measures of lower extremity function are considered together.

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Matthew D. Freke, Kay Crossley, Trevor Russell, Kevin J. Sims and Adam Semciw

decline surface angles, between individuals with hip pain and healthy matched controls. The secondary aim was to explore the associations between physical characteristics such as hip muscle strength, trunk endurance, hip and ankle ROM, and alignment in the lower limb and trunk. It was hypothesized that

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Maarten Beek, Carolyn F. Small, Randy E. Ellis, Richard W. Sellens and David R. Pichora

Computer assisted surgical interventions and research in joint kinematics rely heavily on the accurate registration of three-dimensional bone surface models reconstructed from various imaging technologies. Anomalous results were seen in a kinematic study of carpal bones using a principal axes alignment approach for the registration. The study was repeated using an iterative closest point algorithm, which is more accurate, but also more demanding to apply. The principal axes method showed errors between 0.35 mm and 0.49 mm for the scaphoid, and between 0.40 mm and 1.22 mm for the pisiform. The iterative closest point method produced errors of less than 0.4 mm. These results show that while the principal axes method approached the accuracy of the iterative closest point algorithm in asymmetrical bones, there were more pronounced errors in bones with some symmetry. Principal axes registration for carpal bones should be avoided.