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Rebecca Reynolds, Santhya and David Menzies

A health promotion alliance, or coalition, is when a partnership is formed between 2 or more parties to pursue a set of agreed-upon health-promoting goals 1 (ie, collective impact). 2 For example, complex community interventions can be better planned and implemented when interdisciplinary teams

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Salomé Aubert, Joel D. Barnes, Megan L. Forse, Evan Turner, Silvia A. González, Jakub Kalinowski, Peter T. Katzmarzyk, Eun-Young Lee, Reginald Ocansey, John J. Reilly, Natasha Schranz, Leigh M. Vanderloo and Mark S. Tremblay

Matrix 2.0 on Physical Activity for Children and Youth, 16 and Global Matrix 3.0 on Physical Activity for Children and Youth. 23 Note: AHKGA indicates Active Healthy Kids Global Alliance; GAPA, Global Advocacy for Physical Activity; HDI, Human Development Index; NCDs, noncommunicable diseases; UN

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Karen P. DePauw

For more than 20 years the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance has been able to provide services for professionals who serve individuals with disabilities. Not only have the nature and extent of those services varied over the years, but so have the entities providing the services. Although a merger of entities or structures serving programs of health, physical education, recreation, and dance for individuals with disabilities was previously discussed, it wasn’t until 1983 that the issue became a reality on the AAHPERD agenda. The article traces the recent history culminating in the merger of the Alliance programs and services on individuals with disabilities.

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Mark Hecox

Reebok officially entered the bike business after 15 years of deliberation and strategic re-tooling. This case presents a situation that considers how the process of internationalization may be impacted by various factors both internal and external to the firm. The analysis examines multiple marketing elements, including brand position, product development, distribution channel, pricing, promotion, and operating model. The focus of decision making in the case centers on the use of licensing and determining possible alliance partner structures as possible solutions to enable Reebok to enter the global bike business successfully. Specific internationalization elements explored include mode of entry, foreign market selection, cultural influences, supply chain, operating model, and licensing strategic alliance partner strategy. This case provides an ideal opportunity to explore and analyze why and how a sport enterprise might want to internationalize its business and the potential role sport licensing might play in the process.

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Kiyoji Tanaka and Morihiko Okada

An overview of the mission, research goals, structure, and organization of a major Japanese university research program is presented. The research program is part of a larger initiative known as the Tsukuba Advanced Research Alliance (TARA), which is based at the University of Tsukuba in Ibaraki Prefecture, about 60 km northeast of Tokyo. The TARA Research Foundation was established at the University of Tsukuba in May 1994.

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Mark S. Tremblay, Silvia A. Gonzalez, Peter T. Katzmarzyk, Vincent O. Onywera and John. J. Reilly

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Shushu Chen and Laura Misener

leverage relates to the formulation of collective community and the building of alliances in event leverage. As emphasized by Chalip et al. ( 2017 ), event leverage should start with tightening of the linkages between different agencies that are responsible for various elements of event development (e

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Chad Seifried, Brian Soebbing and Kwame J.A. Agyemang

. Business studies on the transformational processes that occur within an organization suggest that organizations are never fully autonomous, but rather they depend on a variety of IR (e.g., alliances, consortia, networks, and joint ventures) to survive. 3 Interorganizational relationships are “relatively

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Chad Seifried, Brian Soebbing and Kwame J.A. Agyemang

collaborations (e.g., joint ventures, networks, consortia, alliances) to facilitate the creation or maintenance of events, products, or services ( Babiak, 2007 , 2009 ; Knoben, 2009 ; Parmigiani & Rivera-Santos, 2011 ). Furthermore, Luvison and Marks ( 2013 ) underscored the coordination of IR as necessary

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Lane A. Goodwin

The efforts of the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance toward meeting the needs of the handicapped were reviewed. The available literature indicates that since the establishment of this professional organization in 1885, its primary effort has been to serve as a catalyst for the exchange of information within its membership. As changes in the organizational structure occurred over the years, efforts to address the needs of the handicapped were splintered among the substructures of the Alliance. Current initiatives are under way to unify these efforts into a single unit within the Alliance and more appropriately address the needs of the handicapped.