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Philo U. Saunders, Laura A. Garvican-Lewis, Robert F. Chapman, and Julien D. Périard

respective events. The IAAF World Cross Country Championships in 2015 (Guiyang, China; elevation 1,275 m) and 2017 (Kampala, Uganda; elevation 1,210 m) were held at altitudes high enough to significantly impair aerobic performance. In the consensus statement, we will briefly discuss the physiological effects

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Amelia J. Carr, Laura A. Garvican-Lewis, Brent S. Vallance, Andrew P. Drake, Philo U. Saunders, Clare E. Humberstone, and Christopher J. Gore

For some elite endurance athletes, major races are held at altitude. 1 , 2 Competing even at low altitudes, classified as 500 to 2000 m, 3 can affect performances. 4 For instance, the International Association of Athletics Federations classifies events held at any elevation >1000 m as being

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Ben J. Lee and Charles Douglas Thake

known reductions in aerobic power associated with exercise at altitude, 12 – 14 a given intensity of work represents a greater relative intensity (higher percentage of V ˙ O 2 max ) when exercise is performed under hypoxic conditions. Therefore, greater physiological and metabolic adjustments are

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Dennis van Erck, Eric J. Wenker, Koen Levels, Carl Foster, Jos J. de Koning, and Dionne A. Noordhof

To find the optimal altitude for each sporting event, it is important to know the effect of altitude on the main variables that determine performance. The main performance-determining variables, according to the model of Joyner and Coyle, 1 are performance oxygen uptake ( V ˙ O 2 ; determined by

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Blake D. McLean, Kevin White, Christopher J. Gore, and Justin Kemp

Many high-intensity, intermittent team sports undertake prolonged preseason training, which is important for developing physical capacities essential for competitive success. Environmental stimuli, such as altitude 1 or heat, 2 have been applied during these periods, in an attempt to enhance

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Grégoire P. Millet, Rosalie Trigueira, Frédéric Meyer, and Marcel Lemire

Historically, altitude training has been used only by endurance athletes for performance enhancement after return to sea level and/or in preparation for heavy training blocks at sea level. Recent innovative “live low—train high” methods are now well established for improving repeated-sprint ability

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Myles C. Dennis, Paul S.R. Goods, Martyn J. Binnie, Olivier Girard, Karen E. Wallman, Brian T. Dawson, and Peter Peeling

the mechanical power output (and thus training quality). 8 As such, it is common practice for current RSH approaches to utilize moderate simulated altitudes (F I O 2  = 0.135–0.145). 4 However, the majority of this research has been conducted in temperate ambient conditions, raising the question as

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Amelia J. Carr, Philo U. Saunders, Laura A. Garvican-Lewis, and Brent S. Vallance

For many endurance athletes, altitude training is a key component of their preparation for major competitions. 1 According to the classical or live high:train high (LHTH) altitude-training model, athletes travel to venues of increased elevation to live and train for 2 to 4 weeks, in preparation

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Sebastien Racinais, Julien D. Périard, Julien Piscione, Pitre C. Bourdon, Scott Cocking, Mohammed Ihsan, Mathieu Lacome, David Nichols, Nathan Townsend, Gavin Travers, Mathew G. Wilson, and Olivier Girard

games, in hot ambient conditions, but also potentially in temperate environments. 2 – 5 Elite team-sport players also regularly undertake hypoxic (ie, altitude) training camps involving residence and/or training under oxygen-deprived conditions. 8 Sleeping and training in hypoxia for several days (eg

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Keely Shaw, Jyotpal Singh, Luke Sirant, J. Patrick Neary, and Philip D. Chilibeck

Many sports involve athletes travelling to areas of high altitude for competition or training, which leads to decreases in both maximal and submaximal exercise performance. For example, athletes can expect a 7–9% decrease in their maximal aerobic capacity for every 1,000 m above 1,000 m altitude