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Philo U. Saunders, Laura A. Garvican-Lewis, Robert F. Chapman, and Julien D. Périard

respective events. The IAAF World Cross Country Championships in 2015 (Guiyang, China; elevation 1,275 m) and 2017 (Kampala, Uganda; elevation 1,210 m) were held at altitudes high enough to significantly impair aerobic performance. In the consensus statement, we will briefly discuss the physiological effects

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Amelia J. Carr, Laura A. Garvican-Lewis, Brent S. Vallance, Andrew P. Drake, Philo U. Saunders, Clare E. Humberstone, and Christopher J. Gore

For some elite endurance athletes, major races are held at altitude. 1 , 2 Competing even at low altitudes, classified as 500 to 2000 m, 3 can affect performances. 4 For instance, the International Association of Athletics Federations classifies events held at any elevation >1000 m as being

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Ben J. Lee and Charles Douglas Thake

known reductions in aerobic power associated with exercise at altitude, 12 – 14 a given intensity of work represents a greater relative intensity (higher percentage of V ˙ O 2 max ) when exercise is performed under hypoxic conditions. Therefore, greater physiological and metabolic adjustments are

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Mauricio Garzon, Jenaro Leguizamo, Fernando Saldarriaga, Edgar Galeano, and Grégoire P. Millet

Cycling performance is determined by many physiological factors, including maximal oxygen uptake (VO 2 max) and peak power output (PPO). 1 , 2 Emerging data have been recently published 1 , 3 to compare elite junior, under-23 (U23), and professional cyclists. The benefits of altitude training for

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Sébastien Fleuriel, Bruno Papin, and Baptiste Viaud

also linked to the fact that it was the very first event to be organized in a city located at altitude, which raised several concerns. Indeed, these Games witnessed an unprecedented level of supervision and medical monitoring of the participating athletes that was aimed at preserving their health and

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Dennis van Erck, Eric J. Wenker, Koen Levels, Carl Foster, Jos J. de Koning, and Dionne A. Noordhof

To find the optimal altitude for each sporting event, it is important to know the effect of altitude on the main variables that determine performance. The main performance-determining variables, according to the model of Joyner and Coyle, 1 are performance oxygen uptake ( V ˙ O 2 ; determined by

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Myles C. Dennis, Paul S.R. Goods, Martyn J. Binnie, Olivier Girard, Karen E. Wallman, Brian T. Dawson, and Peter Peeling

the mechanical power output (and thus training quality). 8 As such, it is common practice for current RSH approaches to utilize moderate simulated altitudes (F I O 2  = 0.135–0.145). 4 However, the majority of this research has been conducted in temperate ambient conditions, raising the question as

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Blake D. McLean, Kevin White, Christopher J. Gore, and Justin Kemp

Many high-intensity, intermittent team sports undertake prolonged preseason training, which is important for developing physical capacities essential for competitive success. Environmental stimuli, such as altitude 1 or heat, 2 have been applied during these periods, in an attempt to enhance

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Grégoire P. Millet, Rosalie Trigueira, Frédéric Meyer, and Marcel Lemire

Historically, altitude training has been used only by endurance athletes for performance enhancement after return to sea level and/or in preparation for heavy training blocks at sea level. Recent innovative “live low—train high” methods are now well established for improving repeated-sprint ability

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Ray M. Merrill

altitude), as well as urban residency, poverty, tobacco smoking, and obesity, have been associated with physical activity. The influence of these variables on physical activity may be direct or indirect. Associations may also be modified by other variables such as gender. A direct effect of air temperature