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Wojciech Jedziniak, Piotr Lesiakowski, and Teresa Zwierko

that balance control in lower-limb amputees is associated with increased postural sway related to the increased complication of the balance adjustment process ( Ku, Abu Osman, & Wan Abas, 2014 ). As a consequence, lower-limb amputees use specific strategies for functional balance control during walking

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Tess M.R. Carswell, Brenton G. Hordacre, Marc D. Klimstra, and Joshua W. Giles

Lower limb amputees (LLAs) suffer from various comorbidities, including a higher incidence and risk of osteoarthritis (OA) in their intact limb compared with age-matched nonamputees. 1 , 2 Gait assessments of LLAs are often used to evaluate risk of comorbidities and assess aspects of prosthetic

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Hiroaki Hobara, Sakiko Saito, Satoru Hashizume, Hiroyuki Sakata, and Yoshiyuki Kobayashi

and practitioners with a basis for better evaluation of sprint performance and aid in developing more effective training. Despite the prevalence of running-specific prostheses with energy storing capabilities, sprinting strategies in lower-extremity amputees using the running-specific prostheses are

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Atsushi Makimoto, Yoko Sano, Satoru Hashizume, Akihiko Murai, Yoshiyuki Kobayashi, Hiroshi Takemura, and Hiroaki Hobara

unilateral or bilateral transtibial (below-knee) amputees or transfemoral (above-knee) amputees. Several studies demonstrated that individuals with unilateral transtibial amputation have asymmetric modulation of joint kinetics, 1 ground reaction forces (GRFs), 2 , 3 and related stride kinematics

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Gerda Strutzenberger, Adam Brazil, Timothy Exell, Hans von Lieres und Wilkau, John D. Davies, Steffen Willwacher, Johannes Funken, Ralf Müller, Kai Heinrich, Hermann Schwameder, Wolfgang Potthast, and Gareth Irwin

the first contact. 9 Of the 3 lower limb joints, the knee contributes with approximately 25% the least amount toward acceleration. Amputee (AMP) athletes miss the contractile elements of the musculature of the amputated limb (eg, m. gastrocnemius and m. soleus), and although running

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Yetsa A. Tuakli-Wosornu, Xiang Li, Kimberly E. Ona Ayala, Yinfei Wu, Michael Amick, and David B. Frumberg

( Beck et al., 2016 ; Groothuis & Houdijk, 2019 ). Performance-related improvements in prosthetic technology, combined with the varying configurations amputee sprinters use, have fueled a debate over the extent to which energy-storing sprint prostheses impact (i.e., improve or impair) amputee sprint

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Mário A.M. Simim, Gustavo R. da Mota, Moacir Marocolo, Bruno V.C. da Silva, Marco Túlio de Mello, and Paul S. Bradley

Soccer is arguably the world’s most popular sport with over 265 million registered able-bodied participants worldwide ( Kunz, 2007 ). Numerous versions of the sport have developed such as futsal, beach, and amputee soccer (AS). AS has gained popularity worldwide, particularly in countries that

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Paolo Taboga, Alena M. Grabowski, Pietro Enrico di Prampero, and Rodger Kram

In the 2012 Paralympic 100 m and 200 m finals, 86% of athletes with a unilateral amputation placed their unaffected leg on the front starting block. Can this preference be explained biomechanically? We measured the biomechanical effects of starting block configuration for seven nonamputee sprinters and nine athletes with a unilateral amputation. Each subject performed six starts, alternating between their usual and unusual starting block configurations. When sprinters with an amputation placed their unaffected leg on the front block, they developed 6% greater mean resultant combined force compared with the opposite configuration (1.38 ± 0.06 vs 1.30 ± 0.11 BW, P = .015). However, because of a more vertical push angle, horizontal acceleration performance was equivalent between starting block configurations. We then used force data from each sprinter with an amputation to calculate the hypothetical starting mechanics for a virtual nonamputee (two unaffected legs) and a virtual bilateral amputee (two affected legs). Accelerations of virtual bilateral amputees were 15% slower compared with athletes with a unilateral amputation, which in turn were 11% slower than virtual nonamputees. Our biomechanical data do not explain the starting block configuration preference but they do explain the starting performance differences observed between nonamputee athletes and those with leg amputations.

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Andrew W. Smith

The aims of the present study were to quantify lower limb kinetics and kinematics during walking and slow jogging of below-knee amputee athletes and to demonstrate the usefulness of the additional information provided by kinetic analyses as compared to that of kinematic assessments alone. Kinematic and force platform data from three amputee subjects were collected while the subjects walked and jogged in the laboratory. Results indicated that neither prosthesis (SACH and an energy-storing carbon fiber or ESCF) emulated the kinetics or the kinematics of so-called normal gait during walking. While the knee joint on the prosthetic side clearly tended to be biased toward extension during stance, the knee flexors were dominant and acted concentrically during this phase of the gait cycle. An examination of prosthetic limb hip and knee joint kinetics at both cadences revealed the functional role played by the hamstrings early in stance. The results indicated that with increasing cadence, less variability, measured by coefficients of variation, was evident in the kinematic data while the opposite was true for the kinetics.

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Sarah C. Moudy, Neale A. Tillin, Amy R. Sibley, and Siobhán Strike

an amputee that has the ability or potential to negotiate environmental barriers and for prosthetic ambulation that exhibits high impact, stress, or energy levels. ITTA participants had amputations due to traumatic incidents (eg, automobile accident) and were a minimum of 6 months postamputation