Anaerobic capacity/anaerobically attributable power is an important parameter for athletic performance, not only for short high-intensity activities but also for breakaway efforts and end spurts during endurance events. Unlike aerobic capacity, anaerobic capacity cannot be easily quantified. The 3 most commonly used methodologies to quantify anaerobic capacity are the maximal accumulated oxygen deficit method, the critical power concept, and the gross efficiency method. This review describes these methods, evaluates if they result in similar estimates of anaerobic capacity, and highlights how anaerobic capacity is used during sporting activities. All 3 methods have their own strengths and weaknesses and result in more or less similar estimates of anaerobic capacity but cannot be used interchangeably. The method of choice depends on the research question or practical goal.
Dionne A. Noordhof, Philip F. Skiba and Jos J. de Koning
C. Kerksick, C. Rasmussen, R. Bowden, B. Leutholtz, T. Harvey, C. Earnest, M. Greenwood, A. Almada and R. Kreider
This study examined whether ribose supplementation before and during intense anaerobic exercise impacts anaerobic capacity and metabolic markers. Twelve moderately trained male cyclists (22.3 ± 2.2 y; 181 ± 6 cm, 74.8 ± 9 kg) participated in the study. Subjects were familiarized and fasted for 8 h after standardizing nutritional intake. In a double blind and crossover manner subjects ingested either a 150 mL placebo or ribose (3 g ribose + 150 μg folate). Subjects rested for 25 min and completed 5 × 30 s anaerobic capacity tests with 3 min passive rest. Six capillary blood samples were taken prior to and after sprints for adenine nucleotide breakdown determination. The experiment was repeated 1 wk later with alternative drink. Data were analyzed by repeated measures ANOVA. No significant interactions were observed for any performance or blood variables. D-ribose supplementation has no impact on anaerobic exercise capacity and metabolic markers after high-intensity cycling exercise.
John S. Carlson and Geraldine A. Naughton
The purpose of this study was to determine the anaerobic capacity of children using the maximal accumulated oxygen deficit technique (AOD). Eighteen healthy children (9 boys, 9 girls) with a mean age of 10.6 years volunteered as subjects. Peak oxygen uptake and submaximal steady-state oxygen uptake tests were conducted against progressive constant work rates on a Cybex cycle ergometer. Supramaximal work rates were predicted from the linear regression of submaximal steady-state work rates and oxygen uptakes to equal 110, 130, and 150% of peak oxygen uptake. Results indicated a significant interaction in the responses of both sexes when the accumulated oxygen deficit data were expressed in both absolute and relative terms. The profile of accumulated oxygen deficits across the three intensities indicated a downward shift in the girls responses between the 110 and 150% supramaximal tests. This trend was not evident in the boys’ responses. Intraclass correlations conducted on test-retest data indicated that compared to the boys, the reliability of the girls in the accumulated oxygen deficits in liters and ml·kg−1 was poorer.
R.B. Kreider, C. Melton, M. Greenwood, C. Rasmussen, J. Lundberg, C. Earnest and A. Almada
Oral D-ribose supplementation has been reported to increase adenine nucle-otide synthesis and exercise capacity in certain clinical populations. Theoretically, increasing adenine nucleotide availability may enhance high intensity exercise capacity. This study evaluated the potential ergogenic value of D-ribose supplementation on repetitive high-intensity exercise capacity in 19 trained males. Subjects were familiarized to the testing protocol and performed two practice-testing trials before pre-supplementation testing. Each test involved warming up for 5 min on a cycle ergometer and then performing two 30-s Wingate anaerobic sprint tests on a computerized cycle ergometer separated by 3 min of rest recovery. In the pre- and post-supplementation trials, blood samples were obtained at rest, immediately following the first and second sprints, and following 5 min of recovery from exercise. Subjects were then matched according to body mass and anaerobic capacity and assigned to ingest, in a randomized and double blind manner, capsules containing either 5 g of a dextrose placebo (P) or D-ribose (R) twice daily (10 g/d) for 5 d. Subjects then performed post-supplementation tests on the 6th day. Data were analyzed by ANOVA for repeated measures. Results revealed a significant interaction (p = .04) in total work output. Post hoc analysis revealed that work significantly declined (–18 ± 51 J) during the second post-supplementation sprint in the P group while being maintained in the R group (–0.0 ± 31 J). No significant interactions were observed in peak power, average power, torque, fatigue index, lactate, ammonia, glucose, or uric acid. Results indicate that oral ribose supplementation (10 g/d for 5 d) does not affect anaerobic exercise capacity or metabolic markers in trained subjects as evaluated in this study.
Stylianos N. Kounalakis, Ioannis A. Bayios, Maria D. Koskolou and Nickos D. Geladas
Handball is a sport with high anaerobic demands in lower body as has been indicated by Wingate test (WT) performed with the legs, but there are no data available concerning power production during a WT performed with the arms in handball players (HndP). Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore the arm anaerobic profile of HndP during a WT.
Twenty-one elite HndP and 9 physical education students (CON), performed a 30-s arm WT. Power production and muscle oxy-genation were recorded.
Peak power (PP) as well as mean power (MP) was higher (P = .017 and 0.03, and ES = 1.00 and 0.86, respectively) for HndP (HndP PP: 7.6 ± 0.8 W·kg−1, CON PP: 6.7 ± 1.1 W·kg−1; HndP MP 5.3 ± 0.6 W·kg−1, CON MP 4.6 ± 0.9 W·kg−1) with no significant difference in fatigue index between the two groups. Muscle oxygen saturation (StO2) declined ~30% with exercise with no differences between groups. During recovery the HndP group had higher StO2 (P = .01, ES= 3.04), total hemoglobin and oxygenated hemoglobin compared with the CON group (P < .01 ES = 3.29 and 0.99, respectively). StO2 returned to resting values in 29.5 ± 2.3 s in HndP, whereas this variable did not recover after 2 min in CON.
The arm anaerobic capacity of the HndP was “excellent,” significantly higher than that by the control group. Moreover, HndP exhibited faster recovery of StO2 compared with the control group. The greater power output and the faster muscle reoxygenation of arms in HndP can be attributed to specific training adaptations related to high performance in handball.
Øyvind Sandbakk, Guro Strøm Solli and Hans-Christer Holmberg
running ΣO 2 is normally higher than in cycling for both sexes. 23 However, the ΣO 2 -deficits method may have limitations as a valid and reliable measure of anaerobic capacity that may influence sex differences, as well. 24 Maximal Aerobic Power Maximal oxygen uptake (VO 2 max), which is considered the
Jason D. Vescovi, Teena M. Murray and Jaci L. VanHeest
The primary purpose of this study was to determine whether positional profiling is possible for elite ice hockey players by examining anthropometric characteristics and physiological performance. In addition, performance ranges and percentiles were determined for each position (forwards, defensemen, and goalkeepers) on all dependent variables.
A retrospective, cross-sectional study design was used with performance data from ice hockey players (mean age = 18.0 ± 0.6 years) attending the 2001 (n = 74), 2002 (n = 84), and 2003 (n = 92) Combines. Four anthropometric characteristics and 12 performance tests were the dependent variables. A 3 × 3 (position × year) 2-way ANOVA was used to determine whether any significant interactions were present. No significant interactions were observed, so the data were collapsed over the 3-year period and positional characteristics were analyzed using a 1-way ANOVA.
Defenders were heavier and/or taller compared with the other 2 positions (P ≤ .01), whereas goalkeepers showed greater body-fat percentage compared with that of forwards (P = .001). It was found that goalkeepers had significantly lower strength measures for the upper body (P ≤ .043) and lower anaerobic capacity (P ≤ .039) values compared with at least one other position, but they had greater flexibility (P ≤ .013). No positional differences were observed for the broad jump, vertical jump, aerobic power, or curl-ups.
The current findings provide evidence supporting the use of anthropometric measurements, upper body strength, and anaerobic capacity to effectively distinguish among positions for elite-level ice hockey players.
Rodrigo De Araujo Bonetti De Poli, Willian Eiji Miyagi, Fabio Yuzo Nakamura and Alessandro Moura Zagatto
The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of acute caffeine supplementation on anaerobic capacity determined by the alternative maximal accumulated oxygen deficit (MAODALT) in running effort. Eighteen recreational male runners [29 ± 7years; total body mass 72.1 ± 5.8 kg; height 176.0 ± 5.4cm; maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) 55.8 ± 4.2 ml·kg-1 ·min-1] underwent a graded exercise test. Caffeine (6 mg·kg-1) or a placebo were administered 1 hr before the supramaximal effort at 115% of the intensity associated with VO2max in a double-blind, randomized cross-over study, for MAODALT assessment. The time to exhaustion under caffeine condition (130.2 ± 24.5s) was 11.3% higher (p = .01) than placebo condition (118.8 ± 24.9 s) and the qualitative inference for substantial changes showed a very likely positive effect (93%). The net participation of the oxidative phosphorylation pathway was significantly higher in the caffeine condition (p = .02) and showed a likely positive effect (90%) of 15.3% with caffeine supplementation. The time constant of abrupt decay of excess postexercise oxygen consumption (τ1) was significantly different between caffeine and placebo conditions (p = .03) and showed a likely negative effect (90%), decreasing -8.0% with caffeine supplementation. The oxygen equivalents estimated from the glycolytic and phosphagen metabolic pathways showed a possibly positive effect (68%) and possibly negative effect (78%) in the qualitative inference with caffeine ingestion, respectively. However, the MAODALT did not differ under the caffeine or placebo conditions (p = .68). Therefore, we can conclude that acute caffeine ingestion does not modify the MAODALT, reinforcing the robustness of this method. However, caffeine ingestion can alter the glycolytic and phosphagen metabolic pathway contributions to MAODALT.
Thomas Losnegard and Jostein Hallén
Sprint- (≤1.8 km) and distance-skiing (≥15 km) performance rely heavily on aerobic capacity. However, in sprint skiing, due to the ~20% higher speed, anaerobic capacity contributes significantly. This study aimed to identify the possible anthropometric and physiological differences between elite male sprint and distance skiers.
Six sprint and 7 distance international-level cross-country skiers completed testing using the V2 skating technique on a roller-ski treadmill. Measurements included submaximal O2 cost (5°, 3 m/s) and a 1000-m time trial (6°, >3.25 m/s) to assess VO2peak and accumulated oxygen (ΣO2) deficit.
The groups displayed similar O2 cost during the submaximal load. The sprint skiers had a higher ΣO2 deficit (79.0 ± 11.3 vs 65.7 ± 7.5 mL/kg, P = .03, ES = 1.27) and VO2peak in absolute values (6.6 ± 0.5 vs 6.0 ± 0.5 L/min, P = .04, ES =1.23), while VO2peak relative to body mass was lower than in the distance skiers (76.4 ± 4.4 vs 83.0 ± 3.2 mL · kg−1 · min−1, P = .009, ES = 1.59). The sprint skiers were heavier than the distance skiers (86.6 ± 6.1 vs 71.8 ± 7.2 kg, P = .002, ES = 2.07), taller (186 ± 5 vs 178 ± 7 cm, P = .04, ES = 1.25), and had a higher body-mass index (24.9 ± 0.8 vs 22.5 ± 1.3 kg/m2, P = .003, ES = 2.05).
The elite male sprint skiers showed different anthropometric and physiological qualities than the distance skiers, with these differences being directly related to body mass.
The effect of oral creatine supplementation on aerobic and anaerobic performance was investigated in 16 elite male rowers during 7-day endurance training. Before and after the daily ingestion of 20 g creatine monohydrate for 5 days (Cr-Group, n = 8) or placebo (Pl-Group, n = 8), subjects performed two exercise tests on a rowing ergometer: (a) incremental exercise consisting of 3-min stage durations and increased by 50 W until volitional exhaustion; (b) an all-out anaerobic exercise performed against a constant load of 7 W/kg. Heart rate and blood lactate concentrations were determined during exercise and recovery. Maximal power output did not significantly differ after the treatment in either group. The mean individual lactate threshold rose significantly after Cr treatment from 314.3 ± 5.0 W to 335.6 ± 7.1 W (p < .01), as compared with 305.0 ± 6.9 W and 308.9 ± 5.9 W (ns), before and after placebo ingestion, respectively. During the anaerobic test, the athletes supplemented with creatine were able to continue rowing longer (mean increase, 12.1 ± 4.5 s; p < .01) than Pl-Group (2.4 ± 8.2 s; ns). No significant differences were found between groups in blood LA after the all-out exercise. The results indicate that in elite rowers, creatine supplementation improves endurance (expressed by the individual lactate threshold) and anaerobic performance, independent of the effect of intensive endurance training.