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David C. Buttifant, John S. Carlson and Geraldine A. Naughton

Anaerobic characteristics of preadolescent asthmatic and nonasthmatic males were measured using the accumulated oxygen deficit (AOD) on 10 asthmatics (mean age = 10.9 years) and 10 nonasthmatics (mean age = 11.1 years). Subjects ran to exhaustion at speeds that were 110% and 130% of their V̇O2 peak. Mean AOD values for 110% and 130% were 53.23 ± 4.02 and 50.60 ± 2. 81 ml · kg−1, respectively, for the asthmatic children’s and 51.59 ± 2.66 and 47.04 ± 3.44 ml · kg−1, respectively, for the nonasthmatic children. There were no statistically significant differences in anaerobic characteristics measured by AOD values (p > .05) between intensities and groups. FEV1 data revealed that there was no bronchoconstriction occurring in either group under either of the test intensity conditions for up to 15 min postexercise.

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Thomas A. Haugen, Espen Tønnessen and Stephen Seiler

Purpose:

To compare sprint and countermovement-jump (CMJ) performance among competitive soccer players as a function of performance level, field position, and age. In addition, the authors wanted to quantify the evolution of these physical characteristics among professional players over a 15-y period.

Methods:

939 athletes (22.1 ± 4.3 y), including national-team players, tested 40-m sprint with electronic timing and CMJ on a force platform at the Norwegian Olympic Training Center between 1995 and 2010.

Results:

National-team and 1st-division players were faster (P < .05) than 2nd-division (1.0–1.4%), 3rd- to 5th-division (3.0–3.8%), junior national-team (1.7–2.2%), and junior players (2.8–3.7%). Forwards were faster than defenders (1.4%), midfielders (2.5%), and goalkeepers (3.2%) over 0–20 m (P < .001). Midfielders jumped ~2.0 cm lower than the other playing positions (P < .05). Sprinting velocity peaked in the age range 20–28 y and declined significantly thereafter (P < .05). Players from 2006–2010 had 1–2% faster 0–20 m and peak velocity than players from the 1995–1999 and 2000–2005 epochs, whereas no differences in CMJ performance were observed.

Conclusions:

This study provides effect-magnitude estimates for the influence of performance level, position, and age on sprint and CMJ performance in soccer. While CMJ performance has remained stable over the time, there has been a small but positive development in sprinting velocity among professional players.

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Cory W. Baumann, Jeffrey C. Rupp, Christopher P. Ingalls and J. Andrew Doyle

Purpose:

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between anaerobic characteristics and 5-km-race performance in trained female cross-country runners (N = 13).

Methods:

The runners performed 50-m sprints and a 5-km time trial on an outdoor 400-m track and maximal anaerobic (MART) and aerobic running tests on a motorized treadmill. Anaerobic characteristics were determined by the mean velocity of the 50-m sprint (v 50m) and the peak velocity in the MART (v MART). The aerobic characteristics were obtained during the aerobic treadmill test and included maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), running economy, and ventilatory threshold (VT).

Results:

Both the v MART (r = .69, P < .01) and VO2max (r = .80, P < .01) correlated with the mean velocity of the 5-km (v 5km). A multiple-linear-regression analysis revealed that the combination of VO2max, v MART, and VT explained 81% (R 2 = .81, P < .001) of the variation seen in the v 5km. The v MART accounted for 31% of the total shared variance, while the combination of VO2max and VT explained the remaining 50%.

Conclusions:

These results suggest that among trained female runners who are relatively matched, anaerobic energy production can effectively discriminate the v 5km and explain a significant amount of the variation seen in 5-km-race performance.

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Emmanuel Van Praagh, Nicole Fellmann, Mario Bedu, Guy Falgairette and Jean Coudert

This study was done to determine the extent to which body composition accounts for differences in anaerobic characteristics between 12-year-old girls and boys. Peak leg power (PP), mean leg power (MP), percent body fat, fat free mass (FFM), and lean thigh volume (LTV) were determined by various tests. Pubertal stages and salivary testosterone concentration (in boys) were used to assess sexual maturation. Laboratory anaerobic indices were compared with performances in two running tests. Blood samples were taken for lactate determination. Absolute PP and MP outputs were similar in both sexes and were better correlated with LTV in girls, whereas in boys both PP and MP were highly correlated with FFM. Although nonsignificant gender difference in lean tissue was observed, PP and MP when corrected for LTV were significantly greater in boys than in girls. Factors other than the amount of lean muscle mass should be considered in explaining the gender differences in PP and MP in early pubertal children.

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Jaak Jürimäe

, Deconinck F , Lenoir M , Vaeyens R , Philippaerts R . Relative age, biological maturation and anaerobic characteristics in elite youth soccer players . Int J Sports Med . 2013 ; 34 : 897 – 903 . PubMed doi:10.1055/s-0032-1333262 10.1055/s-0032-1333262 23700327 2. Donnelly JE , Hillman CH

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Job Fransen, Stephen Bush, Stephen Woodcock, Andrew Novak, Dieter Deprez, Adam D.G. Baxter-Jones, Roel Vaeyens and Matthieu Lenoir

. 1989 ; 1 ( 2 ): 175 – 83 . PubMed doi:10.1002/ajhb.1310010206 28514006 10.1002/ajhb.1310010206 5. Deprez D , Coutts AJ , Fransen J , et al . Relative age, biological maturation and anaerobic characteristics in elite youth soccer players . Int J Sports Med . 2013 ; 34 ( 10 ): 897 – 903

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Greg Doncaster, John Iga and Viswanath Unnithan

Sports Sci Med . 2015 ; 14 ( 2 ): 418 – 26 . PubMed 25983593 12. Deprez D , Coutts A , Fransen J , Deconinck F , Lenoir M , Vaeyens R , Philippaerts R . Relative age, biological maturation and anaerobic characteristics in elite youth soccer players . Int J Sports Med . 2013 ; 34