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Gary J. Slater, Jennifer Sygo and Majke Jorgensen

adaptations across all three energy systems, resulting in faster rates of phosphocreatine breakdown and greater glycolytic and mitochondrial enzyme activity ( Ross & Leveritt, 2001 ). Intense sprint exercise results in rapid increases in energy turnover from both aerobic and anaerobic metabolism. Having an

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Darren G. Burke, Philip D. Chilibeck, Gianni Parise, Mark A. Tarnopolsky and Darren G. Candow

α-lipoic acid has been found to enhance glucose uptake into skeletal muscle in animal models. Studies have also found that the co-ingestion of carbohydrate along with creatine increases muscle creatine uptake by a process related to insulin-stimulated glucose disposal. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of α-lipoic acid on human skeletal muscle creatine uptake by directly measuring intramuscular concentrations of creatine, phosphocreatine, and ad-enosine triphosphate when creatine monohydrate was co-ingested with α-lipoic acid. Muscle biopsies were acquired from the vastus lateralis m. of 16 male subjects (18–32 y) before and after the experimental intervention. After the initial biopsy, subjects ingested 20 g · d−1 of creatine monohydrate, 20 g · d−1 of creatine monohydrate + 100 g · d−1 of sucrose, or 20 g · d−1 of creatine monohydrate + 100 g · d−1 of sucrose + 1000 mg · d−1 of α-lipoic acid for 5 days. Subjects refrained from exercise and consumed the same balanced diet for 7 days. Body weight increased by 2.1% following the nutritional intervention, with no differences between the groups. There was a significant increase in total creatine concentration following creatine supplementation, with the group ingesting α-lipoic acid showing a significantly greater increase (p < .05) in phosphocreatine (87.6 → 106.2 mmol · kg−1 dry mass [dm]) and total creatine (137.8 → 156.8 mmol · kg−1 dm). These findings indicate that co-ingestion of α-lipoic acid with creatine and a small amount of sucrose can enhance muscle total creatine content as compared to the ingestion of creatine and sucrose or creatine alone.

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Petros G. Botonis, Ioannis Malliaros, Gavriil G. Arsoniadis, Theodoros I. Platanou and Argyris G. Toubekis

suggesting that aerobic metabolism dominates the energy delivery throughout a match-play. In addition, the high occurrence of high-intensity efforts such as dynamic body contacts and swimming sprints 3 , 4 implies that in addition to aerobic, anaerobic metabolism appears to play a decisive role in energy

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Geraldine A. Naughton and John S. Carlson

A definitive measure for assessing the energy contribution of anaerobic pathways during exhaustive exercise remains inconclusive. The accumulated oxygen deficit (AOD) has been used in several studies to estimate energy contribution. The underlying assumptions of the AOD measure have been criticized for underestimating the true contribution of anaerobic metabolism in high intensity exercise. Indeed, the AOD measure has been the subject of much controversy. Several of the physiological exercise responses of children may lead to an even greater underestimation of the anaerobic energy contribution to high intensity exercise in children than adults when AOD measures are calculated.

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Helen T. Douda, Argyris G. Toubekis, Alexandra A. Avloniti and Savvas P. Tokmakidis

Purpose:

To identify the physiological and anthropometric predictors of rhythmic gymnastics performance, which was defined from the total ranking score of each athlete in a national competition.

Methods:

Thirty-four rhythmic gymnasts were divided into 2 groups, elite (n = 15) and nonelite (n = 19), and they underwent a battery of anthropometric, physical fitness, and physiological measurements. The principal-components analysis extracted 6 components: anthropometric, flexibility, explosive strength, aerobic capacity, body dimensions, and anaerobic metabolism. These were used in a simultaneous multiple-regression procedure to determine which best explain the variance in rhythmic gymnastics performance.

Results:

Based on the principal-component analysis, the anthropometric component explained 45% of the total variance, flexibility 12.1%, explosive strength 9.2%, aerobic capacity 7.4%, body dimensions 6.8%, and anaerobic metabolism 4.6%. Components of anthropometric (r = .50) and aerobic capacity (r = .49) were significantly correlated with performance (P < .01). When the multiple-regression model—y = 10.708 + (0.0005121 × VO2 max) + (0.157 × arm span) + (0.814 × midthigh circumference) - (0.293 × body mass)—was applied to elite gymnasts, 92.5% of the variation was explained by VO2max (58.9%), arm span (12%), midthigh circumference (13.1%), and body mass (8.5%).

Conclusion:

Selected anthropometric characteristics, aerobic power, flexibility, and explosive strength are important determinants of successful performance. These findings might have practical implications for both training and talent identification in rhythmic gymnastics.

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Melinda M. Manore, Janice Thompson and Marcy Russo

This study presents the diet and exercise strategies of a world-class bodybuilder during an 8-week precompetition period. Weighed food records were kept daily, and body fat, resting metabolic rate (RMR), VO2max, blood lipids, and liver enzymes were measured. Two hrs of aerobic exercise and 3 hrs of weight training were done daily 6 daystweek. Mean energy intake was 4,952 kcallday (54 kcallkg) and included 1,278 kcallday from mediumchain triglycerides (MCT). Diet without MCT provided 76% of energy from carbohydrate, 19% from protein (1.9 g proteiag), and 5% from fat. Micronutrients were consumed at ≥ 100% of the RDA, except for zinc and calcium, without supplementation. Mean RMR was 2,098 kcallday and represented 43% of energy intake. VO2max was 53 ml.kg−1.min−1. Underwater weighing showed that body fat decreased from 9% to 7%. Blood lipids were normal, but two liver enzymes were elevated (alanine and aspartate aminotransferase). This world-class bodybuilder achieved body fat goals by following a nutrient dense, high energy, high carbohydrate diet and an exercise program that emphasized both aerobic and anaerobic metabolism.

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Craig A. Bridge, Michelle A. Jones and Barry Drust

Purpose:

To investigate the physiological responses and perceived exertion during international Taekwondo competition.

Methods:

Eight male Taekwondo black belts (mean ± SD, age 22 ± 4 y, body mass 69.4 ± 13.4 kg, height 1.82 ± 0.10 m, competition experience 9 ± 5 y) took part in an international-level Taekwondo competition. Each combat included three 2-min rounds with 30 s of recovery between each round. Heart rate (HR) was recorded at 5-s intervals during each combat. Capillary blood lactate samples were taken from the fingertip 1 min before competition, directly after each round and 1 min after competition. Competitors’ rating of perceived exertion (RPE) was recorded for each round using Borg’s 6-to-20 scale.

Results:

HR (round 1: 175 ± 15 to round 3: 187 ± 8 beats·min−1; P < .05), percentage of HR maximum (round 1: 89 ± 8 to round 3: 96 ± 5% HRmax; P < .05), blood lactate (round 1: 7.5 ± 1.6 to round 3: 11.9 ± 2.1 mmol·L-1; P < .05) and RPE (round 1: 11 ± 2 to round 3: 14 ± 2; P < .05; mean ± SD) increased significantly across rounds.

Conclusions:

International-level Taekwondo competition elicited near-maximal cardiovascular responses, high blood lactate concentrations, and increases in competitors' RPE across combat. Training should therefore include exercise bouts that sufficiently stimulate both aerobic and anaerobic metabolism.

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Carl M. Maresh, Catherine L. Gabaree, Jay R. Hoffman, Daniel R. Hannon, Michael R. Deschenes, Lawrence E. Armstrong, Avron Abraham, Frederick E. Bailey and William J. Kraemer

To examine the effect of a nutritional supplement (ATP-E™) on high intensity exercise performance, 23 physically active males volunteered to perform six Wingate Anaerobic Power tests. Tests were performed prior to and at 14 and 21 days during ATP-E~o~r placebo ingestion. f i e experiment followed a double-blind and random-order design. Twelve subjects (responders, R) showed an increase in preexercise blood ATP on Day 14 of ATP-E™ ingestion compared to control measures. The remaining 11 subjects (nonresponders, NR) had no change in pree~e~cibselo od ATP. Peak power and mean power were unchanged for both R and NR subjects across the exercise tests, but R experienced a decrease (p < 0.05) in immediate postexercise plasma lactate on Day 14 of ATP-E™ testing compared to their control measures. NR had no change in peak plasma lactate at any time during the study. The results suggest that short-term high intensity exercise performance was maintained in R with less reliance on anaerobic metabolism, and that response was evident following 14 days of ATP-E™ ingestion.

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Kelly de Jesus, Ross Sanders, Karla de Jesus, João Ribeiro, Pedro Figueiredo, João P. Vilas-Boas and Ricardo J. Fernandes

Background:

Coaches are often challenged to optimize swimmers’ technique at different training and competition intensities, but 3-dimensional (3D) analysis has not been conducted for a wide range of training zones.

Purpose:

To analyze front-crawl 3D kinematics and interlimb coordination from low to severe swimming intensities.

Methods:

Ten male swimmers performed a 200-m front crawl at 7 incrementally increasing paces until exhaustion (0.05-m/s increments and 30-s intervals), with images from 2 cycles in each step (at the 25- and 175-m laps) being recorded by 2 surface and 4 underwater video cameras. Metabolic anaerobic threshold (AnT) was also assessed using the lactate-concentration–velocity curve-modeling method.

Results:

Stroke frequency increased, stroke length decreased, hand and foot speed increased, and the index of interlimb coordination increased (within a catch-up mode) from low to severe intensities (P ≤ .05) and within the 200-m steps performed above the AnT (at or closer to the 4th step; P ≤ .05). Concurrently, intracyclic velocity variations and propelling efficiency remained similar between and within swimming intensities (P > .05).

Conclusions:

Swimming intensity has a significant impact on swimmers’ segmental kinematics and interlimb coordination, with modifications being more evident after the point when AnT is reached. As competitive swimming events are conducted at high intensities (in which anaerobic metabolism becomes more prevalent), coaches should implement specific training series that lead swimmers to adapt their technique to the task constraints that exist in nonhomeostatic race conditions.

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Kirsty Brock, Prokopios Antonellis, Matthew I. Black, Fred J. DiMenna, Anni Vanhatalo, Andrew M. Jones and Stephen J. Bailey

after the onset of exercise. Consequently, a compensatory increase in anaerobic energy liberation is obligatory. Increased dependence on ATP supply through anaerobic metabolism accelerates the depletion of the finite energy reserves, phosphocreatine (PCr) and glycogen, and the accumulation of