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Carl M. Maresh, Catherine L. Gabaree, Jay R. Hoffman, Daniel R. Hannon, Michael R. Deschenes, Lawrence E. Armstrong, Avron Abraham, Frederick E. Bailey and William J. Kraemer

To examine the effect of a nutritional supplement (ATP-E™) on high intensity exercise performance, 23 physically active males volunteered to perform six Wingate Anaerobic Power tests. Tests were performed prior to and at 14 and 21 days during ATP-E~o~r placebo ingestion. f i e experiment followed a double-blind and random-order design. Twelve subjects (responders, R) showed an increase in preexercise blood ATP on Day 14 of ATP-E™ ingestion compared to control measures. The remaining 11 subjects (nonresponders, NR) had no change in pree~e~cibselo od ATP. Peak power and mean power were unchanged for both R and NR subjects across the exercise tests, but R experienced a decrease (p < 0.05) in immediate postexercise plasma lactate on Day 14 of ATP-E™ testing compared to their control measures. NR had no change in peak plasma lactate at any time during the study. The results suggest that short-term high intensity exercise performance was maintained in R with less reliance on anaerobic metabolism, and that response was evident following 14 days of ATP-E™ ingestion.

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Danny Too

The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effect of systematic changes in hip position/configuration on cycling peak anaerobic power (AP) and anaerobic capacity (AC). Fourteen male recreational cyclists (ages 21-32 yrs) were tested in four hip positions (25, 50, 75, and 100°), as defined by the angle formed by the seat tube and a vertical line. Rotating the seat to maintain a backrest perpendicular to the ground induced a systematic decrease in hip angle from the 25 to the 100° position. The Wingate anaerobic cycling test was used on a Monark cycle ergometer with a resistance of 85 gm/kg of the subject’s body mass. Repeated-measures MANOVAs and post hoc tests revealed that AP and AC in the 75° hip position were significantly greater than in the 25 or 100° position and that a second-order function best describes the trend in AP and AC with changes in hip position.

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Farid Farhani, Hamid Rajabi, Raoof Negaresh, Ajmol Ali, Sadegh Amani Shalamzari and Julien S. Baker

and Iran has been ranked among the top 10 teams in the world. 17 Moreover, most Iranian professional soccer players started with futsal prior to playing soccer. 18 , 19 As the assessment of anaerobic power is useful to select players for optimal performance, 8 a further objective was to quantify

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Dajo Sanders, Mathieu Heijboer, Ibrahim Akubat, Kenneth Meijer and Matthijs K. Hesselink

Purpose:

To assess if short-duration (5 to ~300 s) high-power performance can accurately be predicted using the anaerobic power reserve (APR) model in professional cyclists.

Methods:

Data from 4 professional cyclists from a World Tour cycling team were used. Using the maximal aerobic power, sprint peak power output, and an exponential constant describing the decrement in power over time, a power-duration relationship was established for each participant. To test the predictive accuracy of the model, several all-out field trials of different durations were performed by each cyclist. The power output achieved during the all-out trials was compared with the predicted power output by the APR model.

Results:

The power output predicted by the model showed very large to nearly perfect correlations to the actual power output obtained during the all-out trials for each cyclist (r = .88 ± .21, .92 ± .17, .95 ± .13, and .97 ± .09). Power output during the all-out trials remained within an average of 6.6% (53 W) of the predicted power output by the model.

Conclusions:

This preliminary pilot study presents 4 case studies on the applicability of the APR model in professional cyclists using a field-based approach. The decrement in all-out performance during high-intensity exercise seems to conform to a general relationship with a single exponential-decay model describing the decrement in power vs increasing duration. These results are in line with previous studies using the APR model to predict performance during brief all-out trials. Future research should evaluate the APR model with a larger sample size of elite cyclists.

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Dale I. Lovell, Dale Mason, Elias Delphinus and Chris McLellan

Purpose:

The aim of this study was to compare asynchronous (AS Y) arm cranking (cranks at 180° relative to each other) with synchronous (SYN) arm cranking (parallel crank setting) during the 30 s Wingate anaerobic test.

Methods:

Thirty-two physically active men (aged 22.1 ± 2.4 y) completed two Wingate tests (one ASY and one SYN) separated by 4 d in a randomized counterbalanced order. The Wingate tests were completed on a modified electromagnetically braked cycle ergometer. Performance measures assessed during the two tests include peak power, mean power, minimum power, time to peak power, rate to fatigue and maximum cadence (RPMmax). Blood lactate concentration was also measured before and 5 min after the tests.

Results:

Peak and mean power (both absolute and relative to body weight) during SYN arm cranking were significantly (p < 0.001) less than during ASY arm cranking. Rate to fatigue and RPMmax were also significantly (p = 0.012) lower during SYN arm cranking compared with ASY arm cranking. No significant difference was found between test conditions for minimum power, time to peak power or blood lactate concentration.

Conclusions:

These findings demonstrate that ASY arm cranking results in higher peak and mean anaerobic power compared with SYN arm cranking during the Wingate test. Therefore, an ASY arm crank configuration should be used to assess anaerobic power in most individuals although specific population groups may require further testing to determine which crank configuration is most suitable for the Wingate test.

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Nico Hofman, Jac Orie, Marco J.M. Hoozemans, Carl Foster and Jos J. de Koning

Evaluation of anaerobic energy production is important to athletes involved in speed-endurance sports. The Wingate test is one of the most popular laboratory tests designed to evaluate anaerobic power. 1 This 30-second cycle ergometer test has been shown to be effective at distinguishing

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Emmanuel Van Praagh, Nicole Fellmann, Mario Bedu, Guy Falgairette and Jean Coudert

This study was done to determine the extent to which body composition accounts for differences in anaerobic characteristics between 12-year-old girls and boys. Peak leg power (PP), mean leg power (MP), percent body fat, fat free mass (FFM), and lean thigh volume (LTV) were determined by various tests. Pubertal stages and salivary testosterone concentration (in boys) were used to assess sexual maturation. Laboratory anaerobic indices were compared with performances in two running tests. Blood samples were taken for lactate determination. Absolute PP and MP outputs were similar in both sexes and were better correlated with LTV in girls, whereas in boys both PP and MP were highly correlated with FFM. Although nonsignificant gender difference in lean tissue was observed, PP and MP when corrected for LTV were significantly greater in boys than in girls. Factors other than the amount of lean muscle mass should be considered in explaining the gender differences in PP and MP in early pubertal children.

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Hyun Chul Jung, Myong Won Seo, Sukho Lee, Sung Woo Jung and Jong Kook Song

require highly developed physical fitness components that include flexibility, anaerobic power, muscle strength, and endurance. Various training programs have been introduced for enhancing physical performance in TKD athletes ( Monks et al., 2017 ; Nikolaidis et al., 2015 ; Seo et al., 2015 ), and some

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Nicola A. Maffiuletti

After a brief introduction on electro stimulation methodology and applications in competitive sport for performance optimization, this technical report presents the principal effects of electro stimulation-induced resistance exercise on neuromus-cular features. The advantages and limitations of this technique compared with those of voluntary exercise training are also discussed.

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Scott C. Forbes, Darren G. Candow, Jonathan P. Little, Charlene Magnus and Philip D. Chilibeck

The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of Red Bull energy drink on Wingate cycle performance and muscle endurance. Healthy young adults (N = 15, 11 men, 4 women, 21 ± 5 y old) participated in a crossover study in which they were randomized to supplement with Red Bull (2 mg/kg body mass of caffeine) or isoenergetic, isovolumetric, noncaffeinated placebo, separated by 7 d. Muscle endurance (bench press) was assessed by the maximum number of repetitions over 3 sets (separated by 1-min rest intervals) at an intensity corresponding to 70% of baseline 1-repetition maximum. Three 30-s Wingate cycling tests (load = 0.075 kp/kg body mass), with 2 min recovery between tests, were used to assess peak and average power output. Red Bull energy drink significantly increased total bench-press repetitions over 3 sets (Red Bull = 34 ± 9 vs. placebo = 32 ± 8, P < 0.05) but had no effect on Wingate peak or average power (Red Bull = 701 ± 124 W vs. placebo = 700 ± 132 W, Red Bull = 479 ± 74 W vs. placebo = 471 ± 74 W, respectively). Red Bull energy drink significantly increased upper body muscle endurance but had no effect on anaerobic peak or average power during repeated Wingate cycling tests in young healthy adults.