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M. Travis Byrd, Jonathan Robert Switalla, Joel E. Eastman, Brian J. Wallace, Jody L. Clasey and Haley C. Bergstrom

(less than one-third of the whole-body muscle mass; both upper limbs or 1 lower limb) and provides estimates of 2 distinct parameters, CP and anaerobic work capacity (AWC). Monod and Scherrer defined CP as “the maximum rate [a muscle] can keep up for a very long time without fatigue” 1(p339) and AWC as

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Cory W. Baumann, Jeffrey C. Rupp, Christopher P. Ingalls and J. Andrew Doyle

Purpose:

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between anaerobic characteristics and 5-km-race performance in trained female cross-country runners (N = 13).

Methods:

The runners performed 50-m sprints and a 5-km time trial on an outdoor 400-m track and maximal anaerobic (MART) and aerobic running tests on a motorized treadmill. Anaerobic characteristics were determined by the mean velocity of the 50-m sprint (v 50m) and the peak velocity in the MART (v MART). The aerobic characteristics were obtained during the aerobic treadmill test and included maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), running economy, and ventilatory threshold (VT).

Results:

Both the v MART (r = .69, P < .01) and VO2max (r = .80, P < .01) correlated with the mean velocity of the 5-km (v 5km). A multiple-linear-regression analysis revealed that the combination of VO2max, v MART, and VT explained 81% (R 2 = .81, P < .001) of the variation seen in the v 5km. The v MART accounted for 31% of the total shared variance, while the combination of VO2max and VT explained the remaining 50%.

Conclusions:

These results suggest that among trained female runners who are relatively matched, anaerobic energy production can effectively discriminate the v 5km and explain a significant amount of the variation seen in 5-km-race performance.

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Bettina Karsten, Jonathan Baker, Fernando Naclerio, Andreas Klose, Antonino Bianco and Alfred Nimmerichter

Purpose: To investigate single-day time-to-exhaustion (TTE) and time-trial (TT) -based laboratory tests values of critical power (CP), W prime (W′), and respective oxygen-uptake-kinetic responses. Methods: Twelve cyclists performed a maximal ramp test followed by 3 TTE and 3 TT efforts interspersed by 60 min recovery between efforts. Oxygen uptake (V˙O2) was measured during all trials. The mean response time was calculated as a description of the overall V˙O2-kinetic response from the onset to 2 min of exercise. Results: TTE-determined CP was 279 ± 52 W, and TT-determined CP was 276 ± 50 W (P = .237). Values of W′ were 14.3 ± 3.4 kJ (TTE W′) and 16.5 ± 4.2 kJ (TT W′) (P = .028). While a high level of agreement (−12 to 17 W) and a low prediction error of 2.7% were established for CP, for W′ limits of agreements were markedly lower (−8 to 3.7 kJ), with a prediction error of 18.8%. The mean standard error for TTE CP values was significantly higher than that for TT CP values (2.4% ± 1.9% vs 1.2% ± 0.7% W). The standard errors for TTE W′ and TT W′ were 11.2% ± 8.1% and 5.6% ± 3.6%, respectively. The V˙O2 response was significantly faster during TT (~22 s) than TTE (~28 s). Conclusions: The TT protocol with a 60-min recovery period offers a valid, time-saving, and less error-filled alternative to conventional and more recent testing methods. Results, however, cannot be transferred to W′.

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Nathan D. Dicks, Nicholas A. Jamnick, Steven R. Murray and Robert W. Pettitt

Purpose:

To investigate a new power-to-body-mass (BM) ratio 3-min all-out cycling test (3MT%BM) for determining critical power (CP) and finite work capacity above CP (W ′).

Methods:

The gas-exchange threshold (GET), maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), and power output evoking VO2max (W peak) and GET (W GET) for cycle ergometry were determined in 12 participants. CP and W′ were determined using the original “linear factor” 3MT (3MTrpm^2) and compared with CP and W′ derived from a procedure, the 3MT%BM, using the subject’s body mass and self-reported physical activity rating (PA-R), with values derived from linear regression of the work–time model and power–inverse-time model (1/time) data from 3 separate exhaustive squarewave bouts.

Results:

The VO2max, VO2GET, W peak, and W GET values estimated from PA-R and a non-exercise-regression equation did not differ (P > .05) from actual measurements. Estimates of CP derived from the 3MT%BM (235 ± 56 W), 3MTrpm^2 (234 ± 62 W), work–time (231 ± 57 W), and 1/time models (230 ± 57 W) did not differ (F = 0.46, P = .72). Similarly, estimates of W′ between all methods did not differ (F = 3.58, P = .07). There were strong comparisons of the 3MT%BM to 1/time and work–time models with the average correlation, standard error of the measurement, and CV% for critical power being .96, 8.74 W, and 4.64%, respectively.

Conclusion:

The 3MT%BM is a valid, single-visit protocol for determining CP and W′.

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Erwan Leclair, Benoit Borel, Delphine Thevenet, Georges Baquet, Patrick Mucci and Serge Berthoin

This study first aimed to compare critical power (CP) and anaerobic work capacity (AWC), to laboratory standard evaluation methods such as maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2max) and maximal accumulated oxygen deficit (MAOD). Secondly, this study compared child and adult CP and AWC values. Subjects performed a maximal graded test to determine V̇O2max and maximal aerobic power (MAP); and four constant load exercises. In children, CP (W.kg−1) was related to V̇O2max (ml.kg−1.min−1; r = .68; p = .004). AWC (J.kg−1) in children was related to MAOD (r = .58; p = .018). Children presented lower AWC (J.kg−1; p = .001) than adults, but similar CP (%MAP) values. CP (%MAP and W.kg−1) and AWC (J.kg−1) were significantly related to laboratory standard evaluation methods but low correlation indicated that they cannot be used interchangeably. CP (%MAP) was similar in children and adults, but AWC (J.kg−1) was significantly lower in children. These conclusions support existing knowledge related to child-adults characteristics.

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Kerry McGawley, Erwan Leclair, Jeanne Dekerle, Helen Carter and Craig A. Williams

The Wingate cycle test (WAnT) is a 30-s test commonly used to estimate anaerobic work capacity (AWC). However, the test may be too short to fully deplete anaerobic energy reserves. We hypothesized that a 90-s all-out isokinetic test (ISO_90) would be valid to assess both aerobic and anaerobic capacities in young females. Eight girls (11.9 ± 0.5 y) performed an exhaustive incremental test, a WAnT and an ISO_90. Peak VO2 attained during the ISO_90 was significantly greater than VO2peak. Mean power, end power, fatigue index, total work done and AWC were not significantly different between the WAnT and after 30 s of the 90-s test (i.e., ISO_30). However, 95% limits of agreement showed large variations between the two tests when comparing all anaerobic parameters. It is concluded that an ISO-90 may be a useful test to assess aerobic capacity in young girls. However, since the anaerobic parameters derived from the ISO_30 did not agree with those derived from a traditional WAnT, the validity of using an ISO_90 to assess anaerobic performance and capacity within this population group remains unconfirmed.

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Taylor K. Dinyer, M. Travis Byrd, Ashley N. Vesotsky, Pasquale J. Succi and Haley C. Bergstrom

relationship was defined as the anaerobic work capacity and was suggested to represent the total amount of work that could be performed using only stored energy sources within the working muscle(s) (ie, adenosine triphosphate, phosphocreatine, glycogen, and the oxygen bound to myoglobin). 2 The CP model has

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Gareth N. Sandford, Sian V. Allen, Andrew E. Kilding, Angus Ross and Paul B. Laursen

, a measurement that has challenged physiologists for years. 23 Previously, 24 it was shown that Finnish national 800- and 1500-m distance runners and US 400-m athletes (PB range: 44–52.5 s) had superior anaerobic work capacity (as defined from the maximal anaerobic running test) compared with long

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Jason C. Bartram, Dominic Thewlis, David T. Martin and Kevin I. Norton

( 6 ): 783 – 787 . 27834562 10.1123/ijspp.2016-0376 11. Nakamura FY , Pereira G , Hill DW , Berthoin S , Kokubun E . There is no anaerobic work capacity replenishment at critical power intensity: an indirect evidence . Sci Sports . 2008 ; 23 ( 5 ): 244 – 247 . doi:10.1016/j

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Daniel G. Hursh, Marissa N. Baranauskas, Chad C. Wiggins, Shane Bielko, Timothy D. Mickleborough and Robert F. Chapman

improves rowing performance . Med Sci Sports Exerc . 2001 ; 33 ( 5 ): 803 – 809 . doi:10.1097/00005768-200105000-00020 10.1097/00005768-200105000-00020 11. Johnson MA , Sharpe GR , Brown PI . Inspiratory muscle training improves cycling time-trial performance and anaerobic work capacity but not