muscle. 5 If this is the case, changes in mechanical and metabolic status of the muscle arising from forms of exercise other than endurance exercise, such as anaerobic exercise, might also influence rHRI in a manner that allows it to track changes in exercise performance. The aim of the present study
Noah M.A. d’Unienville, Maximillian J. Nelson, Clint R. Bellenger, Henry T. Blake, and Jonathan D. Buckley
Kenneth R. Turley, Joey D. Rivas, Jeremey R. Townsend, Aaron B. Morton, Jason W. Kosarek, and Mark G. Cullum
The effects of caffeine on anaerobic exercise in young boys was investigated. Twenty-four healthy 8–10 year old boys participated in a randomized doubleblind, double-crossover, counter-balanced study. Each subject received the caffeinated drink (CAF—5 mg · kg−1) or placebo (PL) twice each on four separate visits. Sixty minutes following ingestion of either CAF or PL boys performed a static hand-grip test and then a Wingate test. Reliability was moderately high for the Wingate test (R = .70–0.95). Hand-grip reliability was higher for CAF (R = .88) than PL (R = .52). Mean power (180 ± 36 vs 173 ± 28 W) was significantly higher (p < .05) in CAF versus PL, respectively. There were no differences in peak power or static hand-grip maximal voluntary contraction with CAF. Further, peak HR (190 ± 10 vs 185 ± 10 beats · min−1) was significantly higher in CAF versus PL, respectively. Thus, in this study a moderately high dose of CAF significantly increased the average power during a Wingate test, yet it does not affect peak power or static hand-grip strength.
Jonah D. Lee, Lauren E. Sterrett, Lisa M. Guth, Adam R. Konopka, and Anthony D. Mahon
Carbohydrate (CHO) consumption before anaerobic exercise was studied in 13 adolescent boys (15.2 ± 0.9 yrs). A within subjects design was employed where subjects consumed a 22% CHO or volume-matched placebo (PL) beverage 30-min before anaerobic exercise on two separate days. Exercise consisted of a Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT), ten by 10-s-sprints, and a second WAnT. Fatigue index and peak power (PP) were similar while mean power (MP) was higher (p < .025) in CHO trial; however this difference was ascribed to initial WAnT performance. PP and MP for the 10-s sprints were similar between trials. Intravenous blood glucose and insulin concentrations were higher (p < .05) in the CHO trial while lactate and catecholamine concentrations were similar. Improved performance on a single WAnT was apparent with CHO consumption before exercise; however, this strategy did not attenuate fatigue over time in adolescent boys.
Webb A. Smith, Andrew C. Fry, Lesley C. Tschume, and Richard J. Bloomer
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of glycine propionyl-Lcarnitine (GPLC) supplementation and endurance training for 8 wk on aerobicand anaerobic-exercise performance in healthy men and women (age 18–44 yr). Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: placebo (n = 9), 1 g/d GPLC (n = 11), or 3 g/d GPLC (n = 12), in a double-blind fashion. Muscle carnitine (vastus lateralis), VO2peak, exercise time to fatigue, anaerobic threshold, anaerobic power, and total work were measured at baseline and after an 8-wk aerobic-training program. There were no statistical differences (p > .05) between or within the 3 groups for any performance-related variable or muscle carnitine concentrations after 8 wk of supplementation and training. These results suggest that up to 3 g/d GPLC for 8 wk in conjunction with aerobic-exercise training is ineffective for increasing muscle carnitine content and has no significant effects on aerobic- or anaerobic-exercise performance.
William J. Kraemer, Scott E. Gordon, James M. Lynch, Mariana E.M.V. Pop, and Kristine L. Clark
The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of a 3.5-day dietary multibuffer supplement (containing predominantly inorganic phosphate, or Pj, along with bicarbonate and carnosine, i.e., PhosFuel™) on repetitive (four trials separated by 2 min rest) Wingate test (WT) performances and whole blood 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) concentrations in 10 recreationally trained road cyclists (T) and 10 normally active but untrained (UT) men. A 2-week washout period was utilized between experimental sessions. Venous blood samples were obtained via cannula once before exercise (baseline), immediately post each WT, and 3 min after the final WT (recovery). The data indicate that this supplement does not affect acid-base status with following intense anaerobic exercise and does not improve repetitive WT performance. However, the supplement does enhance post-exercise levels of 2,3-DPG and the 2,3-DPG/Hb ratio in recreationally trained cyclists while improving acute recovery of peak power in these men.
Kathleen Woolf, Wendy K. Bidwell, and Amanda G. Carlson
The study examined caffeine (5 mg/kg body weight) vs. placebo during anaerobic exercise. Eighteen male athletes (24.1 ± 5.8 yr; BMI 26.4 ± 2.2 kg/m2) completed a leg press, chest press, and Wingate test. During the caffeine trial, more total weight was lifted with the chest press, and a greater peak power was obtained during the Wingate test. No differences were observed between treatments for the leg press and average power, minimum power, and power drop (Wingate test). There was a significant treatment main effect found for postexercise glucose and insulin concentrations; higher concentrations were found in the caffeine trial. A significant interaction effect (treatment and time) was found for cortisol and glucose concentrations; both increased with caffeine and decreased with placebo. Postexercise systolic blood pressure was significantly higher during the caffeine trial. No differences were found between treatments for serum free-fatty-acid concentrations, plasma lactate concentrations, serum cortisol concentrations, heart rate, and rating of perceived exertion. Thus, a moderate dose of caffeine resulted in more total weight lifted for the chest press and a greater peak power attained during the Wingate test in competitive athletes.
Baruch Wolach, Bareket Falk, Einat Kodesh, Judith Radnay, Hava Shapiro, Yonathan Yarom, and Alon Eliakim
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of anaerobic exercise on aspects of cellular immune function among 10–12-year-old highly trained female gymnasts (n = 7) compared with age- and maturity-matched untrained girls (n = 6). Blood samples were drawn before, immediately after, and 24 hr following exercise. Leukocyte number, particularly neutrophils and lymphocytes, increased following 30 s of supramaximal exercise and returned to baseline values following 24 hr in both groups. Total T-cell and B-cell concentrations, as well as T-helper (CD4) and T-suppressor (CD8) number increased immediately after exercise and decreased following 24 hr in both groups. The CD4:CD8 ratio was reduced following exercise mainly due to an increase in CD8. Natural killer cell count was elevated following exercise and continued to be elevated 24 hr following exercise in both groups. In summary, the exercise-induced changes in cellular immune function among both groups were similar to changes described in adults.
Neslihan Duruturk, Nihan Ozunlu Pekyavas, Atakan Yρlmaz, and Prof. Metin Karatas
Aerobic and anaerobic exercise capacities are important components of athletic performance. The use of Kinesio Taping® (KT) as a supplementary treatment in athletic settings has increased in the recent years. KT can facilitate muscle contraction, which may be useful for improving performance. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the application of KT to the quadriceps muscle has any effect on anaerobic and aerobic performance in young healthy individuals.
Randomized, controlled, double-blind clinical study.
Baskent University, Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation.
Thirty-two healthy male participants were randomly assigned to either the KT group or a sham KT (SKT) group.
The KT muscle facilitation technique was applied to the quadriceps muscle bilaterally and measurements were taken 45 min later to ensure full adhesion.
Main Outcome Measures:
The Wingate cycle ergometer test was used to assess peak anaerobic power (peak AnP, in Watts) and exercise capacity (Watt/kg), while the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) was used to assess aerobic exercise capacity of the participants. Comparisons between groups were performed using the nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test, while those between baseline and posttaping used the nonparametric Wilcoxon test.
No significant difference was found between the two groups in the aerobic or anaerobic test parameters (p > .05). Within the groups, a significant improvement in time factors in peak AnP (929.7 2 ± 184.37 W to 1043.49 ± 224.42 W) was found only in the KT group (p = .028) and no other parameter was significantly different (p > .05).
KT applied to the quadriceps muscle can positively improve anaerobic exercise performance and athletic performance capacity. However, KT did not affect aerobic capacity. Further research is needed to show that KT can improve and support anaerobic and aerobic exercise capacity in healthy participants or athletes.
W. Daniel Schmidt, Gerald C. Hyner, Roseann M. Lyle, Donald Corrigan, Gerald Bottoms, and Christopher L. Melby
This study examined resting metabolic rate (RMR) and thermic effect of a meal (TEM) among athletes who had participated in long-term anaerobic or aerobic exercise. Nine collegiate wrestlers were matched for age, weight, and fat-free weight with 9 collegiate swimmers. Preliminary testing included maximal oxygen consumption, maximal anaerobic capacity (MAnC) for both the arms and the legs, and percent body fat. On two separate occasions, RMR and TEM were measured using indirect calorimetry.
Mark Glaister, Colin Towey, Owen Jeffries, Daniel Muniz-Pumares, Paul Foley, and Gillian McInnes
strength, muscular endurance, and anaerobic capabilities . J Strength Cond Res . 2006 ; 20 ( 3 ): 506 – 510 . PubMed ID: 16937961 16937961 4. Bell DG , Jacobs I , Elerington K . Effect of caffeine and ephedrine ingestion on anaerobic exercise performance . Med Sci Sports Exerc . 2001 ; 33 ( 8