Generally, children with coordination problems lack fitness and muscular strength. This study was designed to identify whether these children differed from age-matched controls on measures of anaerobic performance. Twenty-four boys who were poorly coordinated, from three age groups, 7, 8, and 9 years, were compared to 24 coordinated controls (N = 48). The McCarron (1982) Assessment of Neuromuscular Development (MAND) was used to confirm levels of coordination. Anaerobic performance was estimated with the Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT) and a 50-m run. The poorly coordinated group’s performance on the WAnT was significantly lower than the performance of the controls for measures of peak power normalized for body weight, absolute and normalized mean power, and the fatigue index. The subjects who were poorly coordinated were also significantly slower performing the 50-m sprint. There was a significant relationship between power measured on the WAnT and coordination measured by the MAND gross motor score. For this population, coordination problems were considered among the factors that may interfere with the measurement of anaerobic performance.
Cameron O’Beirne, Dawne Larkin, and Tim Cable
Jonne A. Kapteijns, Kevin Caen, Maarten Lievens, Jan G. Bourgois, and Jan Boone
that field hockey is an intermittent sport activity, where short bursts of high intensity (1–10 s) are interspersed with longer periods of low- to moderate-intensity activity (20 s–2 min). Therefore, female hockey players require both a well-developed aerobic and anaerobic performance capacity. The
Natalia Morgulec, Andrzej Kosmol, Yves Vanlandewijck, and Elzbieta Hubner-Wozniak
The purposes of this study were to compare the anaerobic performance of 19 active and 12 sedentary individuals with quadriplegia on the Wingate arm ergometric test and to investigate the relationship between participants’ demographic information (lesion level, time since injury, age, body mass) and their anaerobic performance variables. The following parameters were measured: peak power (PP), mean power (MP), lowest power (LP), time to achieve PP (t), fatigue index (FI), relative values of PP and MP with respect to body mass, and postexercise blood lactate accumulation (LA). Lowest power, MP, relative values of MP (rMP), FI and LApeak in the active group were significantly higher than in the sedentary group. There was a significant correlation between rMP and injury lesion level (p = .016). It was concluded that for active individuals with quadriplegia, muscle endurance (MP) and fatigability (FI) are higher than for sedentary individuals with quadriplegia.
William J. Kraemer, Ana L. Gómez, Nicholas A. Ratamess, Jay R. Hoffman, Jeff S. Volek, Martyn R. Rubin, Timothy P. Scheett, Michael R. McGuigan, Duncan French, Jaci L. VanHeest, Robbin B. Wickham, Brandon Doan, Scott A. Mazzetti, Robert U. Newton, and Carl M. Maresh
To determine the effects of Vicoprofen®, ibuprofen, and placebo on anaerobic performance and pain relief after resistance-exercise-induced muscle damage.
Randomized, controlled clinical study.
University human-performance/sports-medicine laboratory.
36 healthy men.
Methods and Measures:
After baseline testing (72 h), participants performed an eccentric-exercise protocol. Each was evaluated for pain 24 h later and randomly assigned to a Vicoprofen (VIC), ibuprofen (IBU), or placebo (P) group. Postexercise testing was performed every 24 h for 4 d.
Significantly greater muscle force, power, and total work were observed in VIC than in P (P < .05) for most time points and for IBU at 48 h.
Anaerobic performance is enhanced with VIC, especially within the first 24 h after significant muscle-tissue damage. The greater performances observed at 48 h might be a result of less damage at this time point with VIC treatment.
Bart C. Bongers, Maarten S. Werkman, Donna Blokland, Maria J.C. Eijsermans, Patrick van der Torre, Bart Bartels, Olaf Verschuren, and Tim Takken
To determine criterion validity of the pediatric running-based anaerobic sprint test (RAST) as a nonsophisticated field test for evaluating anaerobic performance in healthy children and adolescents.
Data from 65 healthy children (28 boys and 37 girls between 6 and 18 years of age, mean ± SD age: 10.0 ± 2.8 years) who completed both the pediatric RAST and the 30-s Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT) on a cycle ergometer in a randomized order were analyzed. Peak power (PP) and mean power (MP) were the primary outcome measures for both tests.
There were no significant sex-differences in PP and MP attained at the pediatric RAST and the WAnT. Age was strongly correlated to pediatric RAST and WAnT performance (Spearman’s rho values ranging from 0.85 to 0.90, with p < .001 for all coefficients). We found high correlation coefficients between pediatric RAST performance and WAnT performance for both PP (Spearman’s rho: 0.86; p < .001) and MP (Spearman’s rho: 0.91; p < .001).
The pediatric RAST can be used as a valid and nonsophisticated field test for the assessment of anaerobic performance in healthy children and adolescents. For clinical evaluative purposes, we suggest to use MP of the pediatric RAST when assessing glycolytic power in the absence of the WAnT.
Marco E. Cabrera, Marvin D. Lough, Carl F. Doershuk, and Georgette A. DeRivera
Cystic fibrosis (CF) patients were studied to investigate the muscles’ ability to produce and sustain high-intensity short-term exercise in this population. The patients, 17 males and 23 females, ranged from 10 to 39 years of age. Each patient performed a pulmonary function test followed by a Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT). Based on a pulmonary function scoring system, patients were classified as having severe, moderate, or mild lung dysfunction, or normal lung function. Percent ideal body weight was used to categorize the patients as nourished or malnourished. Two indices of anaerobic performance (peak power and mean power) were determined from the WAnT and normalized by actual weight or by ideal weight. Patients in the severe and moderate groups had lower peak power (PP) and lower mean power (MP) than those in the mild and normal groups. Similarly, malnourished patients showed a lower PP and MP than did nourished patients. These results were similar regardless of whether PP or MP were normalized by weight or ideal weight. It is concluded that the anaerobic performance (muscle power and endurance) of CF patients, as assessed by the WAnT, was related to the degree of severity of the overall disease process.
Yeshayahu Hutzler, Yves Vanlandewijck, and Monica Van Vlierberghe
The purpose was to compare the anaerobic performance of male and female wheelchair basketball players in the 30-s Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT), performed on a mobile wheelchair ergometer. Participants were 10 female and 10 male wheelchair basketball players, aged 39 to 56, from a provincial wheelchair basketball team. Variables measured included peak and mean velocity and power, as well as the fatigue indices. Test-retest reliability, based on 13 participants (7 males and 6 females), ranged from .88 to .95 for peak and mean power and velocity variables and from .40 to .62 for the fatigue indices. Findings for the sample of 20 indicated that (a) males had significantly higher peak and mean velocity and power than females, and (b) females had significantly higher velocity fatigue indices than males.
Michael Chia, Neil Armstrong, and David Childs
Twenty-five girls and 25 boys (mean age 9.7 ± 0.3 years) each completed a 20- and 30-s Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT). Oxygen uptake during the WAnTs, and postexercise blood lactate samples were obtained. Inertia and load-adjusted power variables were higher (18.6–20.1% for peak, and 6.7–7.5% for mean power outputs, p < .05) than the unadjusted values for both the 20- and 30-s WAnTs. The adjusted peak power values were higher (7.7–11.6%, p < .05) in both WAnTs when integrated over 1-s than over 5-s time periods. The aerobic contributions to the tests were lower (p < .05) in the 20-s WAnT (13.7–35.7%) than in the 30-s WAnT (17.7–44.3%) for assumed mechanical efficiencies of 13% and 30%. Postexercise blood lactate concentration after the WAnTs peaked by 2 min. No gender differences (p > .05) in anaerobic performances or peak blood lactate values were detected.
SarahJane Cullen, Eimear Dolan, Kate O Brien, Adrian McGoldrick, and Giles Warrington
Balance and anaerobic performance are key attributes related to horse-racing performance, but research on the impact of making weight for racing on these parameters remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of rapid weight loss in preparation for racing on balance and anaerobic performance in a group of jockeys.
Twelve apprentice male jockeys and 12 age- and gender-matched controls completed 2 trials separated by 48 h. In both trials, body mass, hydration status, balance, and anaerobic performance were assessed. Between the trials, the jockeys reduced body mass by 4% using weight-loss methods typically adopted in preparation for racing, while controls maintained body mass through typical daily dietary and physical activity habits.
Apprentice jockeys decreased mean body mass by 4.2% ± 0.3% (P < .001) with a subsequent increase in dehydration (P < .001). The controls maintained body mass and a euhydrated state. No differences in balance, on the left or right side, or in peak power, mean power, or fatigue index were reported between the trials in either group.
Results from this study indicate that a 4% reduction in body mass in 48 h through the typical methods employed for racing, in association with an increase in dehydration, resulted in no impairments in balance or anaerobic performance. Further research is required to evaluate performance in a sport-specific setting and to investigate the specific physiological mechanisms involved.
Ana C. Holt, Daniel J. Plews, Katherine T. Oberlin-Brown, Fabrice Merien, and Andrew E. Kilding
exercise on time taken to return to baseline. Differences Between Recovery Measures A lack of agreement between recovery measures was evident in the current study with maximal anaerobic performance measures illustrating faster recovery time courses than parasympathetic activity following threshold and