As more media attention is paid to violence and aggressive acts both on and off-field in collegiate sports, it is perplexing that more emphasis has not been placed on examining the causes of these acts from a psychological perspective. While it is certainly not the only factor, anger has been found
Michelle L. Bartlett, Mitch Abrams, Megan Byrd, Arial S. Treankler, and Richard Houston-Norton
Tim Woodman, Paul A. Davis, Lew Hardy, Nichola Callow, Ian Glasscock, and Jason Yuill-Proctor
We conducted three experiments to examine the relationships between emotions and subcomponents of performance. Experiment 1 revealed that anger was associated with enhanced gross muscular peak force performance but that happiness did not influence grammatical reasoning performance. Following Lazarus (1991, 2000a), we examined hope rather than happiness in Experiment 2. As hypothesized, hope yielded faster soccer-related reaction times in soccer players. Experiment 3 was an examination of extraversion as a moderator of the anger-performance relationship. When angry, extraverts’ peak force increased more than introverts’. Results are discussed and future research directions are offered in relation to Lazarus’s framework.
Marco Rathschlag and Daniel Memmert
The present study examined the relationship between self-generated emotions and physical performance. All participants took part in five emotion induction conditions (happiness, anger, anxiety, sadness, and an emotion-neutral state) and we investigated their influence on the force of the finger musculature (Experiment 1), the jump height of a counter-movement jump (Experiment 2), and the velocity of a thrown ball (Experiment 3). All experiments showed that participants could produce significantly better physical performances when recalling anger or happiness emotions in contrast to the emotion-neutral state. Experiments 1 and 2 also revealed that physical performance in the anger and the happiness conditions was significantly enhanced compared with the anxiety and the sadness conditions. Results are discussed in relation to the Lazarus (1991a, 2000a) cognitive-motivational-relational (CMR) theory framework.
Martin J. Turner, Stuart Carrington, and Anthony Miller
distress is negatively related to mental health ( Payton, 2009 ) and has been defined as a state of emotional suffering characterized by symptoms of depression and anxiety ( Mirowsky & Ross, 2002 ). In the current study separate markers of anxiety, depression, and anger, are used to indicate psychological
Maria Grazia Monaci and Francesca Veronesi
Victorian England, its practice does not exclude colorful displays of anger. The normative requirements of the Rules of tennis of several federations usually include a very detailed list of players’ possible manifestations of anger (“throwing balls, rackets and other equipment,” “obscene gestures and
Tracy C. Donachie, Andrew P. Hill, and Daniel J. Madigan
to competition, he/she is more likely to feel energized and prepared for competition (e.g., Cerin & Barnett, 2006 ). Athletes can also experience negative emotions such as anxiety, anger, and dejection precompetition. In contrast to when an athlete experiences positive emotions, when an athlete
Kelly L. Simonton, Karen L. Gaudreault, and Caitlin Olive
stability of teachers ( Frenzel, Becker-Kurz, Pekrun, & Goetz, 2015 ; Taxer, Becker-Kurz, & Frenzel, 2018 ). Some of the most often reported teacher emotions are enjoyment, anger, and anxiety ( Frenzel et al., 2015 , 2016 ). Enjoyment is considered a positive and activating emotion that results from
Joseph Tkacz, Deborah Young-Hyman, Colleen A. Boyle, and Catherine L. Davis
This study tested the effect of a structured aerobic exercise program on anger expression in healthy overweight children. Overweight sedentary children were randomly assigned to an aerobic exercise program or a no-exercise control condition. All children completed the Pediatric Anger Expression Scale at baseline and posttest. Anger Out and Anger Expression scores were lower for the exercise condition at posttest. Fitness improvements contributed significantly to final models, and points earned for adherence correlated negatively with posttest Anger Out. An aerobic exercise program might be an effective strategy to reduce anger expression, including reduction of aggressive behavior, in overweight children.
Megan M. Byrd, Anthony P. Kontos, Shawn R. Eagle, and Samuel Zizzi
concussion, Hutchison et al. ( 2009 ) found that athletes with SRC demonstrated higher levels of anger 1 week and 2 weeks postinjury compared with athletes with musculoskeletal injuries. Athletes’ endorsement of anxiety following injury has been well-researched, yet the relationship between SRC and anxiety
Jeffrey K. H. Vallance, John G. H. Dunn, and Janice L. Causgrove Dunn
This study examined the degree to which male youth ice hockey playersʼ (N = 229, M age = 14.15 years; SD = 1.03) perfectionist orientations were associated with anger vulnerability in competition. Perfectionism and trait anger were measured as domain-specific constructs. Athletes were also asked to speculate on the likely intensity of anger responses if they were to commit mistakes in high- and low-criticality situations in competition. Canonical correlation results indicated that heightened perfectionist orientations were associated with heightened competitive trait anger. Cluster analyses produced three clusters of athletes who possessed either low, moderate, or high levels of perfectionism. Significant between-cluster differences on anger responses to mistakes were obtained, with highly perfectionistic athletes anticipating significantly higher levels of anger following mistakes than low and moderately perfectionistic athletes. A significant situation-criticality main effect was also observed, with athletes anticipating higher levels of anger following personal mistakes in high- as opposed to low-criticality situations. Results are discussed within the context of cognitive motivational theories of emotion.