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Javad Sarvestan and Zdeněk Svoboda

. 14 , 17 Taping has been reported to have a considerable positive effect on the performance of athletes in the execution of agility tests. 18 , 19 In addition, use of KT resulted in increased ankle ROM and agility performance after an exercise program in university students. 4 It has been suggested

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Anna C. Gutierrez and Monica R. Lininger

there would be improvements in both ankle ROM and SEBT scores from the beginning of the season to the end of the 3-month season due to the addition of the corrective exercises. Methods Participants Prior to testing, research approval was obtained from the institutional review board of Northern Arizona

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Matthew D. Freke, Kay Crossley, Trevor Russell, Kevin J. Sims and Adam Semciw

decline surface angles, between individuals with hip pain and healthy matched controls. The secondary aim was to explore the associations between physical characteristics such as hip muscle strength, trunk endurance, hip and ankle ROM, and alignment in the lower limb and trunk. It was hypothesized that

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Douglas A. Pizac, Charles B. Swanik, Joseph J. Glutting and Thomas W. Kaminski

important to note that our testing was conducted with the cleat in place. We argue that the stability provided by ankle taping lessens as the time and intensity of activity increases. A separate study conducted by Purcell et al examined differences in ankle ROM between white cloth tape, self-adherent tape

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Brad Hodgson, Laurie Tis, Steven Cobb and Elizabeth Higbie

Objective:

To examine the effects of external ankle support on vertical ground-reaction forces (VGRF) and kinematic data.

Methods:

Subjects completed 2 braced and 2 nonbraced 0.61-m hanging drop landings onto a force platform. Kinematic data were collected with 8 digital-optical cameras sampling at 120 Hz.

Subjects:

12 Division I female volleyball players.

Statistical Analysis:

A repeated-measures ANOVA with Bonferroni correction (P < .05) was used to determine whether significant differences existed between test conditions for peak VGRF, loading rate, hip angle, knee angle, and ankle angle at right-foot contact for peak 1 and peak 2 of the VGRF curve over the first 100 milliseconds of the landing phase, as well as total hip range of motion (ROM), total knee ROM, and total ankle ROM for the entire landing phase.

Results:

There were significant increases in peak P1 and LR1 and a significant decrease in ankle-angle change at right-foot contact in braced trials compared with the nonbraced condition.

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Brittany Mann, Allison H. Gruber, Shane P. Murphy and Carrie L. Docherty

Context: The lateral ankle sprain is one of the most common lower-extremity injuries in sports. Previous research has found that some prophylactic ankle supports reduce the risk of recurrent ankle sprains and provide extra support to the joint. However, there is a continued concern that these supports may negatively influence performance. Objective: To determine if wearing an ankle brace influences athlete performance and ankle kinematics during functional performance tests. Design: Repeated measures. Setting: University gymnasium. Other Participants: Male and female recreational or competitive athletes (n = 20). Intervention: Participants performed 3 trials of a standing long jump, vertical jump, 40-yard sprint, and T-drill under each of the following 3 conditions: wearing traditional lace-up brace (brace 1), modified lace-up brace (brace 2), and no-brace. Main Outcome Measures: A 2-dimensional motion capture camera was used to measure ankle range of motion (ROM) in the sagittal plane during the vertical and standing long jumps and in the frontal plane during the cutting phase of the T-drill. Performance of each test and ankle ROM were compared between each of the braced conditions. Results: Ankle braces did not influence performance in speed or agility functional performance tests (P > .05). Ankle braces negatively affected performance of the standing long jump (P = .01) and vertical jump (P = .01). There was no significant difference between brace or no-brace conditions in ankle inversion ROM during the T-drill (P > .05). Both brace conditions restricted ROM in the sagittal plane during the vertical and standing long jumps (P < .05). Conclusions: Braced conditions restricted sagittal plane ROM during the vertical jump and long jump. This decrease in ROM explains the decline in functional performance also seen during these tests.

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Bradley T. Hayes, Rod A. Harter, Jeffrey J. Widrick, Daniel P. Williams, Mark A. Hoffman and Charlie A. Hicks-Little

Context:

Static stretching is commonly used during the treatment and rehabilitation of orthopedic injuries to increase joint range of motion (ROM) and muscle flexibility. Understanding the physiological adaptations that occur in the neuromuscular system as a result of long-term stretching may provide insight into the mechanisms responsible for changes in flexibility.

Objective:

To examine possible neurological origins and adaptations in the Ia-reflex pathway that allow for increases in flexibility in ankle ROM, by evaluating the reduction in the synaptic transmission of Ia afferents to the motoneuron pool.

Design:

Repeated-measures, case-controlled study.

Setting:

Sports medicine research laboratory.

Participants:

40 healthy volunteers with no history of cognitive impairment, neurological impairment, or lower extremity surgery or injury within the previous 12 mo.

Intervention:

Presynaptic and postsynaptic mechanisms were evaluated with a chronic stretching protocol. Twenty subjects stretched 5 times a wk for 6 wk. All subjects were measured at baseline, 3 wk, and 6 wk.

Main Outcome Measures:

Ankle-dorsiflexion ROM, Hmax:Mmax, presynaptic inhibition, and disynaptic reciprocal inhibition.

Results:

Only ROM had a significant interaction between group and time, whereas the other dependent variables did not show significant differences. The experimental group had significantly improved ROM from baseline to 3 wk (mean 6.2 ± 0.9, P < .001), 3 wk to 6 wk (mean 5.0 ± 0.8, P < .001), and baseline to 6 wk (mean 11.2 ±0.9, P < .001).

Conclusions:

Ankle dorsiflexion increased by 42.25% after 6 wk of static stretching, but no significant neurological changes resulted at any point of the study, contrasting current literature. Significant neuromuscular origins of adaptation do not exist in the Ia-reflex-pathway components after a long-term stretching program as currently understood. Thus, any increases in flexibility are the result of other factors, potentially mechanical changes or stretch tolerance.

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Jessica L. Schaefer and Michelle A. Sandrey

Context:

A dynamic-balance-training (DBT) program supplemented with the Graston instrument-assisted soft-tissue mobilization (GISTM) technique has not been evaluated collectively as a treatment in subjects with chronic ankle instability (CAI).

Objective:

To examine the effects of GISTM in conjunction with a DBT program on outcomes associated with CAI, including pain and disability, range of motion (ROM), and dynamic postural control.

Design:

Pretest/posttest, repeated measures.

Setting:

High school and a Division I mid-Atlantic university.

Participants:

Thirty-six healthy, physically active individuals (5 female, 31 male; age 17.7 ± 1.9 y; height 175.3 ± 14.6 cm) with a history of CAI as determined by an ankle-instability questionnaire volunteered to be in this study.

Interventions:

Subjects were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 intervention groups: both treatments (DBT/GISTM, n = 13), DBT and a sham GISTM treatment (DBT/GISTM-S, n = 12), or DBT and control—no GISTM (DBT/C, n = 11). All groups participated in a 4-wk DBT program consisting of low-impact and dynamic activities that was progressed from week to week. The DBT/GISTM and DBT/GISTM-S groups received the GISTM treatment or sham treatment twice a week for 8 min before performing the DBT program. Pretest and posttest measurements included the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM), FAAM Sport, the visual analog scale (VAS), ankle ROM in 4 directions, and the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) in 3 directions.

Main Outcome Measures:

FAAM and FAAM-Sport scores, VAS, goniometric ROM (plantar flexion, dorsiflexion, inversion, eversion), and SEBT (anterior, posteromedial, posterolateral).

Results:

Subjects in all groups posttest demonstrated an increase in FAAM, FAAM Sport, ROM, and SEBT in all directions but not in VAS, which decreased. No other results were significant.

Conclusion:

For subjects with CAI, dynamic postural control, ROM, pain and disability improved pretest to posttest regardless of group membership, with the largest effects found in most measures in the DBT/GISTM group.

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Jacob J. Janicki, Craig L. Switzler, Bradley T. Hayes and Charlie A. Hicks-Little

Context:

Functional movement screening (FMS) has been gaining popularity in the fields of sports medicine and performance. Currently, limited research has examined whether FMS screening that identifies low FMS scores is attributed primarily to limits in range of motion (ROM).

Objective:

To compare scores from the FMS hurdle-step movement with ROM measurements for ankle dorsiflexion and hip flexion (HF).

Design:

Correlational research design.

Setting:

Sports medicine research laboratory.

Participants:

20 healthy active male (age 21.2 ± 2.4 y, weight 77.8 ± 10.2 kg, height 180.8 ± 6.8 cm) and 20 healthy active female (21.3 ± 2.0 y, 67.3 ± 8.9 kg, 167.4 ± 6.6 cm) volunteers.

Intervention:

All 40 participants completed 3 trials of the hurdle-step exercise bilaterally and goniometric ROM measurements for active ankle dorsiflexion and HF.

Main Outcome Measures:

Correlations were determined between ROM and FMS scores for right and left legs. In addition, mean data were compared between FMS scores, gender, and dominant and nondominant limbs.

Results:

There were no significant correlations present when all participants were grouped. However, when separated by gender significant correlations were identified. There was a weak correlation with HF and both hurdle-step (HS) and average hurdle-step (AHS) scores on both left (r = .536, P = .015 and r = .512, P = .012) and right (r = .445, P = .049 and r = .565, P = .009) legs for women. For men, there was a poor negative correlation of HF and both HS and AHS on the left leg (r = –.452, P = .045 and r = .451, P = .046).

Conclusion:

Our findings suggest that although hip and ankle ROMs do not have a strong relationship with FMS hurdle-step scores, they are a contributing factor. More research should be conducted to identify other biomechanical factors that contribute to individual FMS test scores.

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reinjury of that same ankle. a. True b. False 17. In this study, what outcome measures were used by the researchers? a. ankle injury rate and ankle ROM b. ankle injury rate and SEBT c. ankle ROM and SEBT d. SEBT and leg length 18. The participants in this study demonstrated statistically significant