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Reliability of Inversion and Eversion Peak- and Average-Torque Measurements from the Biodex System 3 Dynamometer

Thomas W. Kaminski and Geoff C. Dover


To determine the reliability of inversion and eversion concentric isokinetic-strength measurements from the Biodex System 3 isokinetic dynamometer.


University biomechanics research laboratory.


Thirty-five volunteers free from any lower leg and ankle injuries within the preceding year.


Peak (PT) and average (AT) isokinetic torque at 30°/s and 120°/s for subtalar-joint inversion and eversion.


PT intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC2,1) ranged from .54 to .92. AT ICC2,1 ranged from .55 to .91. These ICCs were good to excellent for both PT and AT at each speed and motion tested, except for fair ICCs produced from right-foot-eversion measurements at 30°/s.


Inversion and eversion subtalar-joint strength measurements from the Biodex System 3 isokinetic dynamometer are reliable.

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Effects of a 4-Week Intrinsic Foot Muscle Exercise Program on Motor Function: A Preliminary Randomized Control Trial

John J. Fraser and Jay Hertel

athletic circles, only 2 studies to our knowledge have examined the effects of these exercises on IFM function. 16 , 20 Because little is known regarding the effects of toe-posture exercises as a modality in the treatment of the ankle–foot complex or for fitness, it is important that these interventions

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Rural Secondary School Athletic Trainers’ Recognition and Management of Acute Lateral Ankle Sprains: A Retrospective Chart Review

Robert Vallandingham, Zachary Winkelmann, Lindsey Eberman, and Kenneth Games

. Schwieterman B , Haas D , Columber K , Knupp D , Cook C . Diagnostic accuracy of physical examination tests of the ankle/foot complex: a systematic review . Int J Sports Phys Ther . 2013 ; 8 ( 4 ): 416 – 426 . PubMed ID: 24175128 12. Hosea TM , Carey CC , Harrer MF . The gender issue

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The Effect of the TayCo External Ankle Brace on Multidirectional Reach Distance, Balance, and Motion in Collegiate Athletes

Steven J. Smith and Cameron J. Powden

ankle/foot complex: plantarflexion and dorsiflexion . Foot Ankle . 1989 ; 9 ( 4 ): 194 – 200 . PubMed ID: 2731829 doi:10.1177/107110078900900409 2731829 21. Karlsson J , Swärd L , Andréasson GO . The effect of taping on ankle stability . Sports Med . 1993 ; 16 ( 3 ): 210 – 215 . PubMed ID

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Effects of Foot Orthoses on Pain and the Prevention of Lower Limb Injuries in Runners: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Murilo Pires Neves, Cristiano Sena da Conceição, Paulo Roberto Garcia Lucareli, Renata Santana da Silva Barbosa, João Paulo Bomfim Cruz Vieira, Alécio Jorge Alves de Lima Brasileiro, Grimaldo Ferreira da Silva Jr, and Mansueto Gomes-Neto

of individualized and sex-specific prevention and rehabilitation strategies to manage running-related injuries. 43 Francis et al 44 reported that the predominant injury in female runners is to the knee. Male runners have a more even distribution of injury between the knee, shank, and ankle–foot

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Association of Proximal and Distal Factors With Lower Limb Kinematics During a Classical Ballet Jump

Anelise Moreti Cabral, Adalberto Felipe Martinez, Vitor Leme, Bruna Calazans Luz, and Fábio Viadanna Serrão

ballet dancers. 7 Proximal (hip) and distal (ankle–foot complex) factors may contribute to impaired dynamic lower limb kinematics. 17 Proximally, an excessive movement of hip adduction may increase dynamic lower limb valgus during weight-bearing activities, 17 and it may occur as a consequence of hip

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Immediate Effects of Ankle Joint Mobilization With Movement on Postural Control, Range of Motion, and Muscle Strength in Healthy Individuals: A Randomized, Sham-Controlled Trial

Murat Tomruk, Melda Soysal Tomruk, Emrullah Alkan, and Nihal Gelecek

control, because the ankle–foot complex is the only part of the body contacting the ground. Ankle proprioception provides essential information to enable adjustment of ankle positions, and ankle plays a major role in the maintenance and correction of postural control in different directions during both

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Landing Biomechanics in Adolescent Athletes With and Without a History of Sports-Related Concussion

Jason M. Avedesian, Tracey Covassin, and Janet S. Dufek

spines, anterior superior iliac spines, and iliac crests); thigh/shank (4 marker clusters); knee (medial and lateral femoral condyles); and ankle/foot complex (medial and lateral malleoli, first metatarsal, fifth metatarsal, and 3 marker clusters on the heel). After marker placement, participants

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Ultrasound Measures of Intrinsic Foot Muscle Size and Activation Following Lateral Ankle Sprain and Chronic Ankle Instability

John J. Fraser, Rachel Koldenhoven, and Jay Hertel

with the lower leg secured to a cradle with a strap. The foot was unloaded as the ankle–foot complex cantilevered at the foot of the plinth. Figure  2 depicts the participant positioning, transducer location, and measured images of the IFM. USI was performed using a Siemens Acuson Freestyle US system

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Effects of Textured Balance Board Training in Adolescent Ballet Dancers With Ankle Pathology

Nili Steinberg, Roger Adams, Oren Tirosh, Janet Karin, and Gordon Waddington

time, all of which could be explained by proprioceptive deficits. 1 , 10 , 11 With respect to proprioceptive ability, ankle proprioception may be one of the more important components contributing to balance control in dance, as during most dance movements the ankle–foot complex is making contact with